Properties of Chemical and Kinetic Freeze-Outs in High-Energy Nuclear CollisionsView this Special Issue
Angular Dependence of Photoproduction in Photon-Induced Reaction
Photoproduction of mesons from nucleons can provide valuable information about the excitation spectrum of the nucleons. The angular dependence of photoproduction in the photon-induced reaction is investigated in the multisource thermal model. The results are compared with experimental data from the decay mode. They are in good agreement with the experimental data. It is shown that the movement factor increases linearly with the photon beam energies. And the deformation and translation of emission sources are visually given in the formalism.
The excitation spectrum of nucleons is important to understanding the nonperturbative behavior of the fundamental theory of strong interactions, Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) [1–4]. The photon-induced meson production off nucleons is mainly used to achieve more information from the excitation spectrum of nucleons. It is very important for missing resonances that the meson production in photon-induced and hadron-induced reactions on free (and quasi-free) nucleons and on nuclei [5–8]. The advantage of photon-induced reactions is that the electromagnetic couplings can provide valuable information related to the details of the model wave functions. Because the electromagnetic excitations are isospin dependent, we need perform meson-production reactions off the neutron.
Recently, the photoproduction of mesons from quasi-free protons and neutrons was measured in decay mode by the CBELSA/TAPS detector at the electron accelerator ELSA in Bonn . At different incident photon energies, the experiments are performed by the incident photon beam on a liquid deuterium target. A great number of mesons are produced in the photon-induced reaction. The experimental data are regarded as a multiparticle system. And, their angular distributions represent an obvious regularity at different incident photon energies. In order to explain the abundant experimental results, some statistical methods are proposed and developed [10–16]. In this work, we will extend a multi-source thermal model to the statistical investigation of the angular distributions in the photon-induced reaction and try to understand the photoproduction in the reaction. In our previous wok [17–21], the model was focused on the investigation of the particle production in intermediate-energy and high-energy collisions.
2. Meson Distribution in the Multi-Source Thermal Model
In the multi-source thermal model [17–21], many emission sources are expected to be formed at the final stage of the photon-induced reaction. Every source emits particles isotropically in the source rest frame. The observed mesons are from different emission sources. The incident beam direction is defined as an axis and the reaction plane is defined as plane. In the source rest frame, the meson momentum , , and obeys a normal distribution. The corresponding transverse momentum obeys a Rayleigh distribution:where represents a distribution width. The distribution function of the polar angle is
Because of the interactions with other emission sources, the considered source deforms and translates along the axis. Then, the momentum component is revised towhere and represent the coefficients of the source deformation and translation along the axis, respectively. The mathematical description of the deformable translational source is formulized simply as a linear relationship between and , which reflects the mean result of the source interaction. For or , the distribution of mesons is anisotropic along the axis.
By using Monte Carlo method, and are given bywhere , , and are random numbers from 0 to 1. The polar angle is revised toWe can calculate a new distribution function of the polar angle by this formula.
3. Angular Dependencies of Photoproduction in the Photon-Induced Reaction
Figures 1(a)–1(p) show the angular distributions of mesons for different bins of incident photon energy 698 MeV MeV as a function of . is the polar angle of meson in the beam-target cm system assuming the initial state nucleon at rest. The symbols represent the experimental data from the CBELSA/TAPS detector at the electron accelerator ELSA in Bonn . The results obtained by using the multi-source thermal model are shown with the curves, which behave in the same way as the experimental data in the 16 bins of incident photon energy. By minimizing per degree of freedom (), we determine the corresponding parameters and , which are presented in Table 1. It is found that there is an almost linear relationship between the and . As representative energies of Figure 1, we give a schematic sketch of these emission sources at the four different energies in Figure 7(a). The deformations and translations can be seen intuitively in the figure.
In Figures 2(a)–2(p) and Figures 3(a)–3(p), we present the angular distributions of mesons for different bins of incident photon energy 1035 MeV 1835 MeV as a function of . is the polar angle of meson in the beam-target cm system assuming the initial state nucleon at rest. Same as Figure 1, the symbols represent the experimental data from the CBELSA/TAPS detector at the electron accelerator ELSA in Bonn . The results obtained by using the multisource thermal model are shown with the curves, which behave in the same way as the experimental data in the 28 bins of incident photon energy. Parameters and are presented in Tables 2 and 3. As the representative energies of Figures 1 and 2, the schematic sketches of the emission sources are given at different energies in Figures 7(b) and 7(c).
In Figures 4, 5, and 6, we show angular distributions in the -nucleon cm system for reaction for the different bins of final state energy 1488 MeV 1625 MeV, 1635 MeV 1830 MeV and 1850 MeV 2070 MeV, respectively. Same as Figure 1, the model results and experimental data are indicated by the curves and symbols, respectively. The model results can also agree with the experimental data. In the same way, the deformations and translations of these emission sources are given in Tables 4–6 and Figures 7(d)–7(f). All the parameter values taken in the above calculations are also given in Figures 8 and 9. It can be found that keeps almost invariable and fluctuates around 1.0 with the increasing . The parameter increases linearly with the increasing and their relationship can be expressed by a linearly function, . There are similar relationships between the parameters and different final state energies in Figure 9, where the fitting function of is .
4. Discussion and Conclusions
The excitation spectrum of nucleons can especially help us to understand the strong interaction in the nonperturbative regime. Before, the hadron induced reactions is a main experimental method in the investigation. In the last two decades, the photon-induced reaction and electron scattering experiment are applied to study the electromagnetic excitation of baryons. Recently, the photoproduction of mesons from quasi-free protons and neutrons are measured by the CBELSA/TAPS detector. In the paper, we theoretically study the angular distribution of mesons for different incident photon energies and for different final state energies . Then, the results are compared with the experimental data in detail. The deformation coefficient and translation coefficient are extracted by the comparison. is almost independent of incident photon energies and final state energies. is linearly dependent on incident photon energies and final state energies. In particular, we visually give the deformation and translation of the emission sources by schematic sketches. From the patterns, it is intuitive and easy to better understand the motion and configuration of the emission sources.
A great number of mesons are produced in the photon-induced reaction. These mesons are regarded as a multiparticle system, which can be analyzed by the statistical method. In recent years, we develop such a model, which is called multisource thermal model. Some emission sources of final-state particles are formed in the reaction. Each emission source emits particles isotropically in the rest frame of the emission source. Due to the source interaction, the sources emit particles anisotropically. The mesons are emitted from these sources. In our previous work, the model can successfully describe transverse momentum spectra and pseudorapidity spectra of final-state particles produced in proton-proton () collisions, proton-nucleus () collisions, and nucleus -nucleus () collisions at intermediate energy and at high energy [17–21]. In this work, we extend the multisource thermal model to the statistical investigation of final-state particles produced in the photon-induced reaction. The model is improved to describe the angular dependence of the photoproduction from quasi-free protons and neutrons. The information of the source deformation and translation is obtained with different beam energies. It is helpful for us to understand the photoproduction.
The theoretical results are compared with experimental data, which are from .
Conflicts of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
This work is supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grants No. 11247250 and No. 11575103, Shanxi Provincial Natural Science Foundation under Grant No. 201701D121005, and Scientific and Technological Innovation Programs of Higher Education Institutions in Shanxi (STIP) Grant No. 201802017.
B. Krusche, C. Wilkin, and Prog. Part, “Production of η and η' mesons on nucleons and nuclei,” Progress in Particle and Nuclear Physics, vol. 80, pp. 43–95, 2014.View at: Google Scholar
M. Dieterle, “First measurement of the polarization observable E and helicity-dependent cross sections in single π0 photoproduction from quasi-free nucleons,” Phys. Lett. B, vol. 770, no. 523, 2017.View at: Google Scholar
B. C. Li, Y. Y. Fu, L. L. Wang, and F.-H. Liu, “Dependence of elliptic flows on transverse momentum and number of participants in Au+Au collisions at √sNN=200 GeV,” Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics, vol. 40, no. 2, Article ID 025104, 2013.View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
T. Sekihara, H. Fujioka, and T. Ishikawa, “Possible η′d bound state and its bound state and its s-channel formation in the γd → ηd reaction,” Physical Review C, vol. 97, Article ID 045202, 2018.View at: Google Scholar
A. V. Anisovich, “Neutron helicity amplitudes,” Physical Review C, vol. 96, Article ID 055202, 2017.View at: Google Scholar
V. Kuznetsov, “Observation of Narrow N+(1685) and No Resonances in γN → πηN Reactions,” JETP Lett, vol. 106, no. 11, pp. 693–699, 2017.View at: Google Scholar
J. D. Holt, J. Menéndez, J. Simonis, and A. Schwenk, “Three-nucleon forces and spectroscopy of neutron-rich calcium isotopes,” Physical Review C: Nuclear Physics, vol. 90, no. 2, Article ID 024312, 2014.View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
S. A. Voloshin, “Collective phenomena in ultra-relativistic nuclear collisions: anisotropic flow and more,” Progress in Particle and Nuclear Physics, vol. 67, no. 2, pp. 541–546, 2012.View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
L. Witthauer, “Photoproduction of η mesons from the neutron: Cross sections and double polarization observable E,” The European Physical Journal A, vol. 53, no. 58, 2017.View at: Google Scholar
J. Rafelski and J. Letessier, “Testing limits of statistical hadronization,” Nuclear Physics A, vol. 715, p. 98, 2003.View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
A. Andronic, P. Braun-Munzinger, and J. Stachel, “Thermal hadron production in relativistic nuclear collisions: The hadron mass spectrum, the horn, and the QCD phase transition,” Physics Letters B, vol. 673, no. 2, pp. 142–145, 2009.View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
J. Cleymans, H. Oeschler, K. Redlich, and S. Wheaton, “Comparison of chemical freeze-out criteria in heavy-ion collisions,” Physical Review C: Nuclear Physics, vol. 73, no. 4, Article ID 034905, 2006.View at: Google Scholar
P. Braun-Munzinger, J. Stachel, and C. Wetterich, “Chemical freeze-out and the QCD phase transition temperature,” Physics Letters B, vol. 596, no. 1-2, pp. 61–69, 2004.View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
A. Adare, S. Afanasiev, and C. Aidala, “Measurement of neutral mesons in p+p collisions at √s=200 GeV and scaling properties of hadron production,” Physical Review D: Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology, vol. 83, Article ID 052004, 2011.View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
K. Aamodt, N. Abel, and U. Abeysekara, “Transverse momentum spectra of charged particles in proton–proton collisions at √s = 900 GeV with ALICE at the LHC,” Physics Letters B, vol. 693, no. 2, pp. 53–68, 2010.View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
C. Y. Wong and G. Wilk, “Tsallis fits to spectra and multiple hard scattering in pp collisions at the LHC,” Physical Review D: Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology, vol. 87, Article ID 114007, 2013.View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
B. C. Li, Y. Y. Fu, E. Q. Wang, L. L. Wang, and F. H. Liu, “Transverse momentum dependence of charged and strange hadron elliptic flows in Cu–Cu collisions,” Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics, vol. 39, no. 8, Article ID 025009, 2012.View at: Google Scholar
S. Andringa, E. Arushanova, and S. Asahi, “Current status and future prospects of the SNO+ experiment,” Advances in High Energy Physics, vol. 2016, Article ID 6194250, 21 pages, 2016.View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
B.-C. Li, Y.-Z. Wang, F.-H. Liu, X.-J. Wen, and Y.-E. Dong, “Particle production in relativistic pp and AA collisions at RHIC and LHC energies with Tsallis statistics using the two-cylindrical multisource thermal model,” Physical Review D: Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology, vol. 89, Article ID 054014, 2014.View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
B. C. Li, Y. Z. Wang, and F. H. Liu, “Formulation of transverse mass distributions in Au–Au collisions at √sNN = 200 GeV/nucleon,” Physics Letters B, vol. 725, no. 4-5, pp. 352–356, 2013.View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
B.-C. Li, Z. Zhang, J.-H. Kang, G.-X. Zhang, and F.-H. Liu, “Tsallis statistical interpretation of transverse momentum spectra in high-energy pA collisions,” Advances in High Energy Physics, vol. 2015, Article ID 741816, 10 pages, 2015.View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar