Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Advances in Multimedia
Volume 2007 (2007), Article ID 45798, 13 pages
Research Article

Fuzzy Logic Control of Adaptive ARQ for Video Distribution over a Bluetooth Wireless Link

Department of Electronic Systems Engineering, University of Essex, Wivenhoe Park, Colchester CO4 3SQ, UK

Received 27 April 2007; Accepted 23 July 2007

Academic Editor: Tasos Dagiuklas

Copyright © 2007 R. Razavi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Bluetooth's default automatic repeat request (ARQ) scheme is not suited to video distribution resulting in missed display and decoded deadlines. Adaptive ARQ with active discard of expired packets from the send buffer is an alternative approach. However, even with the addition of cross-layer adaptation to picture-type packet importance, ARQ is not ideal in conditions of a deteriorating RF channel. The paper presents fuzzy logic control of ARQ, based on send buffer fullness and the head-of-line packet's deadline. The advantage of the fuzzy logic approach, which also scales its output according to picture type importance, is that the impact of delay can be directly introduced to the model, causing retransmissions to be reduced compared to all other schemes. The scheme considers both the delay constraints of the video stream and at the same time avoids send buffer overflow. Tests explore a variety of Bluetooth send buffer sizes and channel conditions. For adverse channel conditions and buffer size, the tests show an improvement of at least 4 dB in video quality compared to nonfuzzy schemes. The scheme can be applied to any codec with I-, P-, and (possibly) B-slices by inspection of packet headers without the need for encoder intervention.