Advances in Multimedia / 2010 / Article / Fig 1

Review Article

UEP Concepts in Modulation and Coding

Figure 1

Hierarchical quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM): (a) 4/16/64-QAM and (b) 2/4/8-QAM.
(a) A 4-QAM ( ) is embedded in a 16-QAM ( ) which is embedded in a 64-QAM ( )
(b) A BPSK ( ) is embedded in a 4-QAM ( ) which is embedded in a nonsquare 8-QAM ( )

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