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Advances in Medicine
Volume 2016, Article ID 2675345, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/2675345
Research Article

Dietary Energy Density, Renal Function, and Progression of Chronic Kidney Disease

1Food Security Research Center and Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutrition and Food Science, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
2Department of Nephrology, Isfahan Kidney Diseases Research Center, Isfahan, Iran
3Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
4Faculty of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
5Diabetes Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinical Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

Received 27 April 2016; Accepted 23 August 2016

Academic Editor: Denis A. Cozzi

Copyright © 2016 Mohammad Hossein Rouhani et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Background. There is evidence of the association between dietary energy density and chronic diseases. However, no report exists regarding the relation between DED and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Objective. To examine the association between dietary energy density (DED), renal function, and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Design. Cross-sectional. Setting. Three nephrology clinics. Subjects. Two hundred twenty-one subjects with diagnosed CKD. Main Outcome Measure. Dietary intake of patients was assessed by a validated food frequency questionnaire. DED (in kcal/g) was calculated with the use of energy content and weight of solid foods and energy yielding beverages. Renal function was measured by blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine (Cr), and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Results. Patients in the first tertile of DED consumed more amounts of carbohydrate, dietary fiber, potassium, phosphorus, zinc, magnesium, calcium, folate, vitamin C, and vitamin B2. After adjusting for confounders, we could not find any significant trend for BUN and Cr across tertiles of DED. In multivariate model, an increased risk of being in the higher stage of CKD was found among those in the last tertile of DED (OR: 3.15; 95% CI: 1.30, 7.63; ). Conclusion. We observed that lower DED was associated with better nutrient intake and lower risk of CKD progression.