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The Spatiotemporal Evolution Pattern and Influential Factor of Regional Carbon Emission Convergence in China
As economic development rapidly progresses in China, a method of carbon emission control that provides reasonable solutions is needed. This paper analyzes the convergence of carbon emission evolutionary characteristics in different regions of China and studies the dynamics of carbon emissions in China based on a convergence model. It was found that the carbon emission levels of each region are prominent in terms of time, and the regional carbon emission level has absolute β characteristics. The regional carbon emission condition β convergences have different convergence paths. Therefore, it is necessary to justify carbon emission reduction in China and put forward an emission reduction strategy.
Wind Speed-Independent Two-Source Energy Balance Model Based on a Theoretical Trapezoidal Relationship between Land Surface Temperature and Fractional Vegetation Cover for Evapotranspiration Estimation
An accurate estimation of terrestrial evapotranspiration over heterogeneous surfaces using satellite imagery and few meteorological observations remains a challenging task. Wind speed (u), which is known to exhibit high temporal-spatial variation, is a significant constraint in the abovementioned task. In this study, a wind speed-independent two-source energy balance (WiTSEB) model is proposed on the basis of a theoretical land surface temperature (Tr)-fractional vegetation coverage (fc) trapezoidal space and a two-stage evapotranspiration decomposing method. The temperatures in theoretically driest boundaries of the Tr-fc trapezoid are iteratively calculated without u by using an assumption of the absence of sensible heat exchange between water-saturated surface and atmosphere in the vertical direction under the given atmospheric condition. The WiTSEB was conducted in HiWATER-MUSOEXE-12 in the middle reaches of the Heihe watershed across eight landscapes by using ASTER images. Results indicate that WiTSEB provides reliable estimates in latent heat flux (LE), with root-mean-square-errors (RMSE) and coefficient of determination of 68.6 W m−2 and 0.88, respectively. The RMSE of the ratio of the vegetation transpiration component to LE is 5.7%. Sensitivity analysis indicates WiTSEB does not aggravate the sensitivity on meteorological and remote sensing inputs in comparison with other two-source models. The errors of estimated Tr and observed soil heat flux result in LE overestimation/underestimation over parts of landscapes. The two-stage evapotranspiration decomposing method is carefully verified by ground observation.
A Quality Control Method Based on an Improved Kernel Regression Algorithm for Surface Air Temperature Observations
An improved kernel regression (IKR) method based on an adaptive algorithm and particle swarm optimization is proposed. Considering the limitations of current quality control methods in different regions and on multiple time scales, the kernel regression algorithm is applied to the quality control of surface air temperature observations. Observations of 12 reference stations in Jiangsu from 1961 to 2008 and of 14 regions in China from 2010 to 2014 were selected. The analysis of surface air temperature observations was performed in terms of the mean absolute error (MAE), root mean square error (RMSE), consistency indicator (IOA), and Nash–Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficient (NSC). The results indicate that compared with the traditional IDW and SRT methods, the IKR method has a high error detection rate. Furthermore, the IKR method achieves better predictions and fitting in the single-station and multistation regression experiments in Jiangsu and in the national multistation regression prediction experiment.
Potential Impacts of Projected Climate Change under CMIP5 RCP Scenarios on Streamflow in the Wabash River Basin
Global climate change is becoming an increasingly important issue that threatens the imperiled planet. Quantifying the impact of climate change on the streamflow has been an essential task for the proper management of water resources to mitigate this impact. This study aims to evaluate the skill of an artificial neural network (ANN) method in downscaling precipitation, maximum temperature, and minimum temperature and assess the potential impacts of climate change on the streamflow in the Wabash River Basin of the Midwestern United States (U.S.) using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). A statistical downscaling technique based on an ANN method was employed to estimate precipitation and temperature at a higher resolution. The downscaled climate projections from five general circulation models (GCMs) under the three representative concentration pathway (RCP) scenarios (i.e., RCP2.6, RCP4.5, and RCP8.5) for the periods of 2026–2050 and 2075–2099 as well as the historical period were incorporated into the SWAT model to assess the potential impact of climate change on the Wabash River regime. Calibration and validation of the SWAT model indicated the streamflow simulations matched the observed results very well. The ANN method successfully reproduced the observed maximum/minimum temperature and precipitation; however, bias in precipitation was observed in regard to the frequency distribution. Compared with the simulated streamflow in the historical period, the predicted streamflow based on the RCP scenarios showed an obvious decreasing trend, where the annual streamflows will be decreased by 13.00%, 17.59%, and 6.91% in the midcentury periods and 25.29%, 27.61%, and 15.04% in the late-century periods under the RCP2.6, RCP4.5, and RCP8.5 scenarios, respectively. Climate warming dominated the streamflow decrease under the RCP2.6 and RCP4.5 scenarios. By contrast, under RCP8.5, the streamflow was affected by the joint actions of changes in temperature and precipitation.
A Microclimate Study of Traffic and Pedestrianization Scenarios in a Densely Populated Urban City
Urban streets are known to have a significant role in creating urban microclimates. This study aims to empirically quantify temporal and spatial microclimate variation within the same street configurations with pedestrian schemes. To evaluate the urban microclimates at the pedestrian level, a detailed monitoring project was performed at five representative locations near intersections, within a busy street canyon of the typical urban community in a densely populated urban city. Monitoring was done for warm and cool seasons. A strong, significant correlation () was found under multiple time scenarios (traffic, nontraffic, and as a whole) and for both seasons. These findings suggest that the average urban daily temperature was not significantly reduced when there was no vehicular traffic present, whereas pedestrian activity contributed to urban heat regardless of the season. These findings provide an essential foundation for further studies on urban microclimates within pedestrianized areas and will likely lead to better urban design and policy management, especially concerning thermal comfort and Quality of Life at the pedestrian level.
Why the Increasing Trend of Summer Rainfall over North China Has Halted since the Mid-1990s
Previous studies indicate that the summer (July-August) rainfall over North China has decreased since the mid-1970s due to the weakening of East Asian summer monsoon (EASM). However, this study firstly discovers the new evidences that the summer rainfall over North China had a significant increasing tendency during 1979–1996; since 1997, this increasing tendency has halted while more summer droughts occurred over North China. One important cause for the halted increasing tendency over North China is the interdecadal decrease of the westerly water vapor transport during 1997–2016 in addition to the weakened EASM. The decrease of the westerly water vapor transport during 1997–2016 was due to the interdecadal warming over Lake Baikal. The interdecadal warming in the upper troposphere at 200 hPa forced the weakening of the upper-level zonal winds since 1997, which resulted in the anomalous descending flow over the north side of North China and the halted precipitation trend in North China.