Long-Term Homogeneity and Trends of Hydroclimatic Variables in Upper Awash River Basin, EthiopiaRead the full article
Advances in Meteorology publishes research in all areas of meteorology and climatology. Topics include forecasting techniques and applications, meteorological modelling, data analysis, atmospheric chemistry and physics, and climate change.
James Cleverly, the journal’s Chief Editor, is based at the University of Technology in Sydney, Australia. His research interests include carbon, water and energy fluxes of arid-land Acacia swales; physics of the atmospheric surface layer and interactions with terrestrial ecosystems.
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Analysis of Seasonal Daytime Urban Thermal Environment Dynamics in a Tropical Coastal City Based on the Spatiotemporal Fusion Model
This study investigated the seasonal variations of daytime urban thermal environment (UTE) based on land surface temperature (LST) in Shenzhen of 2015. The spatial and temporal adaptive reflectance fusion model (STARFM) was used for retrieving seasonal daytime LST at high spatiotemporal resolution by combining MODIS and HJ-1B LST data. Next, the relationship between the land cover and daytime in each season was examined. Finally, daytime LST patterns were classified, and the effects of seasonal variations of high-grade daytime LSTs were analyzed with landscape metrics. The results showed that (1) the STARFM is capable of generating seasonal daytime LST data at high spatiotemporal resolution. (2) Daytime LSTs were generally higher in the western parts of Shenzhen in spring and summer. (3) Daytime LST in each land cover type showed an increasing trend form winter to summer and decreased from summer to autumn. The highest and lowest daytime LSTs in each season were observed in ISAs and water bodies. (4) Landscape metrics provided a quantitative method for describing seasonal variations in daytime LSTs, and it was found that seasons influenced the intensity and extent of daytime LSTs in Shenzhen. These findings may be helpful for urban planners developing regional urban strategies to improve daytime urban thermal comfort conditions.
Evaluating the Dependence between Temperature and Precipitation to Better Estimate the Risks of Concurrent Extreme Weather Events
Precipitation and temperature are among major climatic variables that are used to characterize extreme weather events, which can have profound impacts on ecosystems and society. Accurate simulation of these variables at the local scale is essential to adapt urban systems and policies to future climatic changes. However, accurate simulation of these climatic variables is difficult due to possible interdependence and feedbacks among them. In this paper, the concept of copulas was used to model seasonal interdependence between precipitation and temperature. Five copula functions were fitted to grid (approximately 10 km × 10 km) climate data from 1960 to 2013 in southern Ontario, Canada. Theoretical and empirical copulas were then compared with each other to select the most appropriate copula family for this region. Results showed that, of the tested copulas, none of them consistently performed the best over the entire region during all seasons. However, Gumbel copula was the best performer during the winter season, and Clayton performed best in the summer. More variability in terms of best copula was found in spring and fall seasons. By examining the likelihoods of concurrent extreme temperature and precipitation periods including wet/cool in the winter and dry/hot in the summer, we found that ignoring the joint distribution and confounding impacts of precipitation and temperature lead to the underestimation of occurrence of probabilities for these two concurrent extreme modes. This underestimation can also lead to incorrect conclusions and flawed decisions in terms of the severity of these extreme events.
Evaluating the Performance of Secondary Precipitation Products through Statistical and Hydrological Modeling in a Mountainous Tropical Basin of India
This paper investigates the performance of gridded rainfall datasets for precipitation detection and streamflow simulations in Indiaʼs Tungabhadra river basin. Sixteen precipitation datasets categorized under gauge-based, satellite-only, reanalysis, and gauge-adjusted datasets were compared statistically against the gridded Indian Meteorological Dataset (IMD) employing two categorical and three continuous statistical metrics. Further, the precipitation datasets’ performance in simulating streamflow was assessed by using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) hydrological model. Based on the statistical metrics, Asian Precipitation Highly Resolved Observational Data Integration Towards Evaluation (APHRODITE) furnished very good results in terms of detecting rainfall, followed by Climate Hazards Group Infrared Precipitation (CHIRP), National Centres for Environmental Prediction-Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (NCEP CFSR), Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) 3B42 v7, Global Satellite Mapping of Precipitation Gauge Reanalysis v6 (GSMaP_Gauge_RNL), and Multisource Weighted Ensemble Precipitation (MSWEP) datasets which had good-to-moderate performances at a monthly time step. From the hydrological simulations, TRMM 3B42 v7, CHIRP, CHIRPS 0.05°, and GSMaP_Gauge_RNL v6 produced very good results with a high degree of correlation to observed streamflow, while Soil Moisture 2 Rain-Climate Change Initiative (SM2RAIN-CCI) dataset exhibited poor performance. From the extreme flow event analysis, it was observed that CHIRP, TRMM 3B42 v7, Global Precipitation Climatology Centre v7 (GPCC), and APHRODITE datasets captured more peak flow events and hence can be further implemented for extreme event analysis. Overall, we found that TRMM 3B42 v7, CHIRP, and CHIRPS 0.05° datasets performed better than other datasets and can be used for hydrological modeling and climate change studies in similar topographic and climatic watersheds in India.
Impact of Multivariate Background Error Covariance on the WRF-3DVAR Assimilation for the Yellow Sea Fog Modeling
Numerical modeling of sea fog is highly sensitive to initial conditions, especially to moisture in the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL). Data assimilation plays a vital role in the improvement of initial MABL moisture for sea fog modeling over the Yellow Sea. In this study, the weather research and forecasting (WRF) model and its three-dimensional variational (3DVAR) data assimilation module are employed for sea fog simulations. Two kinds of background error (BE) covariances with different control variables (CV) used in WRF-3DVAR, that is, CV5 and multivariate BE (CV6), are compared in detail by explorative case studies and a series of application experiments. Statistical verification metrics including probability of detection (POD) and equitable threat scores (ETS) of forecasted sea fog area are computed and compared for simulations with the implementations of CV5 and CV6 in the WRF-3DVAR system. The following is found: (1) there exists a dominant negative correlation between temperature and moisture in CV6 near the sea surface, which makes it possible to improve the initial moisture condition in the MABL by assimilation of observed temperature; (2) in general, the performance of the WRF-3DVAR assimilation with CV6 is distinctly better, and the results of 10 additional sea fog cases clearly suggest that CV6 is more suitable than CV5 for sea fog modeling. Compared to those with CV5, the average POD and ETS of forecasted sea fog area using 3DVAR with CV6 can be improved by 27.6% and 21.0%, respectively.
Assessing the Response of Satellite Solar-Induced Chlorophyll Fluorescence and NDVI to Impacts of Heat Waves on Winter Wheat in the North China Plain
Global warming has increased the chance of concurrent extreme climate events (weather or climate events that are rare within their statistical reference distributions in a particular place, such as heat waves, floods, and droughts). Crops grow best within specific temperature intervals, and excessive heat is detrimental to the physiological processes of crops and eventually affects yield levels. Analysing historical changes in concurrent extreme high temperatures is critical to preparing for and mitigating the negative effects of climatic change. The North China Plain (NCP) is the most important wheat production area in China. In this study, the spatiotemporal variations in temperature and heat wave trends in the NCP were analysed. Furthermore, we examined the potential of solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) to capture the influence of heat wave impacts on wheat crops in the NCP by comparing satellite remote sensing data of SIF and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and validated ground-based yield data. The results indicate that temperatures and the number of heat wave days in the study region all show increasing trends, especially daily minimum temperature, which has increased by 0.38°C per decade for the past 30 years. Spatially, the southern NCP has suffered greater increasing-temperature trends and more heat wave days than the northern region. Regarding the response of SIF and NDVI to heat waves, SIF can better capture wheat yield decline due to heat waves compared to NDVI; thus, the SIF result indicated more sensitivity to heat waves compared to NDVI.
Evaluation of Future Climate and Potential Impact on Streamflow in the Upper Nan River Basin of Northern Thailand
Water resources in Northern Thailand have been less explored with regard to the impact on hydrology that the future climate would have. For this study, three regional climate models (RCMs) from the Coordinated Regional Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX) of Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5) were used to project future climate of the upper Nan River basin. Future climate data of ACCESS_CCAM, MPI_ESM_CCAM, and CNRM_CCAM under Representation Concentration Pathways RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 were bias-corrected by the linear scaling method and subsequently drove the Hydrological Engineering Center-Hydrological Modeling System (HEC-HMS) to simulate future streamflow. This study compared baseline (1988–2005) climate and streamflow values with future time scales during 2020–2039 (2030s), 2040–2069 (2050s), and 2070–2099 (2080s). The upper Nan River basin will become warmer in future with highest increases in the maximum temperature of 3.8°C/year for MPI_ESM and minimum temperature of 3.6°C/year for ACCESS_CCAM under RCP8.5 during 2080s. The magnitude of changes and directions in mean monthly precipitation varies, with the highest increase of 109 mm for ACESSS_CCAM under RCP 4.5 in September and highest decrease of 77 mm in July for CNRM, during 2080s. Average of RCM combinations shows that decreases will be in ranges of −5.5 to −48.9% for annual flows, −31 to −47% for rainy season flows, and −47 to −67% for winter season flows. Increases in summer seasonal flows will be between 14 and 58%. Projection of future temperature levels indicates that higher increases will be during the latter part of the 20th century, and in general, the increases in the minimum temperature will be higher than those in the maximum temperature. The results of this study will be useful for river basin planners and government agencies to develop sustainable water management strategies and adaptation options to offset negative impacts of future changes in climate. In addition, the results will also be valuable for agriculturists and hydropower planners.