Enabling FAIR Data in the Earth, Space, and Environmental Sciences
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Advances in Meteorology publishes research in all areas of meteorology and climatology. Topics include forecasting techniques and applications, meteorological modelling, data analysis, atmospheric chemistry and physics, and climate change.
James Cleverly, the journal’s Chief Editor, is based at the University of Technology in Sydney, Australia. His research interests include carbon, water and energy fluxes of arid-land Acacia swales; physics of the atmospheric surface layer and interactions with terrestrial ecosystems.
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Effects of Location-Specific Meteorological Factors on COVID-19 Daily Infection in a Tropical Climate: A Case of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Insufficient information on the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) has made it more difficult for the world to tackle its continuous implosion. Meteorological and environmental factors, in both laboratory and epidemiological studies, have been reported to affect the survival and transmission of the virus. In this study, the possible effects of location-specific meteorological parameters in a tropical climate on new daily COVID-19 infection (NDI) are investigated in Kuala Lumpur from 14 March 2020 to 31 August 2020. A generalized additive model (GAM) was imposed on ambient temperature (T) and absolute humidity (AH) to explore their nonlinear relationship with NDI. Piecewise linear regression was then used to further discern the relationships below and above the threshold values of both T and AH. The relationship between T and NDI, which was linear and statistically significant for T > 29.7°C, showed that each unit rise in temperature increases NDI by about 3.210% (CI: 1.372–7.976). AH had a more pronounced linear association with NDI for AH ≤ 22.6 g/m3 but tended to flatten the exposure-response curve above this value. A 1 g/m3 increase in AH increases NDI by 3.807% (CI: 2.064–5.732). Generally, the results indicated a positive association between T and NDI, particularly above 29.7°C, while the association with AH showed a stronger positive relationship below 22.6 g/m3. The implication of this is that COVID-19 could not be suppressed on account of warmer weather as such public health interventions remain imperative.
Spatiotemporal Variations of Drought in the Arid Region of Northwestern China during 1950–2012
There are water resource shortages and frequent drought disasters in the arid region of northwestern China (ARNC). The purpose of this study is to understand the spatiotemporal variations of the droughts in this region and to further estimate future changes. Multiple drought indexes such as the standardized precipitation index (SPI), the standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI), and the self-calibrated Palmer drought severity index (SC-PDSI) are used to investigate the temporal and spatial characteristics of the ARNC drought from 1950 to 2012. Our results indicate the following: (1) The drought indexes exhibit significant increasing trends, and the highest drought frequency occurred in the 1960s, followed by a decreasing trend during the next few decades. All four seasons exhibit a wet trend, with a higher drought frequency in summer than in the other seasons. (2) The changes of the drought indexes in the ARNC also exhibit distinct spatial variations, with a wet trend in the subregions of North Xinjiang (NXJ), the Tianshan Mountains (TS), South Xinjiang (SXJ), and the Qilian Mountains (QL), but with a dry trend in the subregions of the Hexi Corridor (HX) and the western part of Inner Mongolia (WIM). (3) There was a major climate variability in the ARNC that occurred in the 1980s, and there were dry and wet climate oscillation periods of 8a, 17a, and >20a.
Analysis of the Response of Urban Water Consumption to Climatic Variables: Case Study of Khorramabad City in Iran
Iran is located in a dry climate belt. Such conditions have made the supply of urban water resources one of the most fundamental management challenges. The amount of water consumed in a city is affected by the weather conditions greatly such that as the weather changes, the amount of water consumed changes as well. In this study, several models including zero-order Pearson’s correlation coefficient, first-order Pearson’s correlation, generalized additive model (GAM), generalized linear model (GLM), support vector machine (SVM-Nu), and simplex optimization algorithm were used in order to identify linear/nonlinear reactions of monthly water consumption to the individual and combined associations of meteorological variables (temperature, air pressure, and relative humidity) in Khorramabad city. Zero-order and first-order correlations showed that, by controlling the air temperature, the effect of pressure and relative humidity on changes in water consumption increase. On the other hand, both individual and combined GAM models showed the same result in the nonlinear response of water consumption to the changes in relative humidity and air pressure. The spline method also revealed that, by eliminating the effect of air temperature, the nonlinear reaction of water consumption to changes in pressure and relative humidity was increasing, and by eliminating the effects of the relative humidity and air pressure, the nonlinear reaction of water consumption to the air temperature was intensified. In general, by decreasing the air pressure and temperature, the amount of urban household water consumption decreases drastically. These conditions are generally provided by entering low-pressure systems.
Observed Shear-Relative Rainfall Asymmetries Associated with Landfalling Tropical Cyclones
This study examines the shear-relative rainfall spatial distribution of tropical cyclones (TCs) during landfall based on the 19-year (1998–2016) TRMM satellite 3B42 rainfall estimate dataset and investigates the role of upper-tropospheric troughs on the rainfall intensity and distribution after TCs make a landfall over the six basins of Atlantic (ATL), eastern and central Pacific (EPA), northwestern Pacific (NWP), northern Indian Ocean (NIO), southern Indian Ocean (SIO), and South Pacific (SPA). The results show that the wavenumber 1 perturbation can contribute ∼ 50% of the total perturbation energy of total TC rainfall. Wavenumber 1 rainfall asymmetry presents the downshear-left maxima in the deep-layer vertical wind shear between 200 and 850 hPa for all the six basins prior to making a landfall. In general, wavenumber 1 rainfall tends to decrease less if there is an interaction between TCs and upper-level troughs located at the upstream of TCs over land. The maximum TC rain rate distributions tend to be located at the downshear-left (downshear) quadrant under the high (low)-potential vorticity conditions.
Impacts of Sea Surface Temperature and Atmospheric Teleconnection Patterns in the Northern Mid-Latitudes on Winter Extremely Cold Events in North China
The frequency distribution of winter extreme cold events (ECEs) in North China and the influences of mid-latitude sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTAs) in the Northern Hemisphere are studied. The results show that (1) the frequency of single station ECEs (SSECEs) in winter increases from southeast to northwest, with a decrease before 2008 and then a significant increase. This trend abrupt change occurs in late winter. (2) When the SST in the North Pacific shows an “El-Niño-like” anomaly in winter, it triggers the negative Arctic Oscillation (−AO), positive Pacific North America (+PNA), and positive Eurasia Pacific (+EUP) atmospheric teleconnection patterns in the mid-lower troposphere. As a result, the ridge to south of Lake Baikal becomes stronger. Meanwhile, SST in the North Atlantic shows a “reversed C” negative anomaly with North Atlantic Oscillation (+NAO), (+PNA)-like and (+EUP)-like patterns, and the ridge to southwest of Lake Baikal becomes stronger. Furthermore, both cause the Siberian High to become weaker in the north and stronger in the south. With the weaker East Asia subtropical jet and stronger East Asia winter monsoon, these factors lead to a significant increase of SSECE frequency in North China. (3) When the SSTA shows an “El Niño-like” developing pattern from summer to autumn in the North Pacific, the winter SSECE frequency will be higher. (4) The purported mechanism between the mid-latitude SSTA and the winter SSECE frequency in North China is the following: the SSTA in the North Pacific in summer and autumn excites atmospheric teleconnection wave trains, and the Atlantic stores these anomaly signals. In winter, the interaction between the SSTAs in the North Pacific and the North Atlantic enhances the Eurasian teleconnection wave train. With the upstream fluctuation energy dispersing downstream, the wave train centers move eastward with the season, resulting in an increase in the frequency of the SSECEs.
Statistical Characteristics of Raindrop Size Distribution during Rainy Seasons in Northwest China
Raindrop size distribution (DSD) is of great significance for understanding the microphysical process of rainfall and the quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE). However, in the past, there was a lack of relevant research on Xinjiang in the arid region of northwest China. In this study, the rainy season data collected by the disdrometer in the Yining area of Xinjiang were used for more than two years, and the characteristics of DSDs for all samples, for two rain types (convective and stratiform), and for six different rain rates were studied. The results showed that nearly 70% of the total samples had a rainfall rate of less than 1 mm·h−1, the convective rain was neither continental nor maritime, and there was a clear boundary between convective rain and stratiform rain in terms of the scattergram of the standardized intercept parameter () versus the mass-weighted average diameter (). When the raindrop diameter was less than 0.7 mm, DSDs of the two rainfalls basically coincided, while when the raindrop diameter was greater than 0.7 mm, DSDs of convective rainfall were located above the stratiform rain. As the rainfall rate increased, increased, while first increased and then decreased. In addition, we deduced the (radar reflectivity-rain rate) relationship and relationship (shape parameter-slope parameter of the gamma DSDs) suitable for the Yining area. These conclusions are conducive to strengthening the understanding of rainfall microphysical processes in arid regions and improving the ability of QPE in arid regions.