Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Advances in Meteorology
Volume 2011, Article ID 406508, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2011/406508
Research Article

20-Year Climatology of and Wet Deposition at Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard

1Norwegian Polar Institute, Fram Centre, 9296 Tromsø, Norway
2Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Oslo University, Postbox 1032, Blindern, 0315 Oslo, Norway
3Norwegian Institute for Air Research, P.O. Box 100, N-2027 Kjeller, Norway
4Department of Applied Environmental Science, Stockholm University, Svante Arrhenius väg 8, 11418 Stockholm, Sweden

Received 14 September 2011; Accepted 9 December 2011

Academic Editor: Anna Sjöblom

Copyright © 2011 Rafael Kühnel et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. J. N. Galloway, W. H. Schlesinger, H. Levy, A. Michaels, and J. L. Schnoor, “Nitrogen fixation: anthropogenic enhancement-environmental response,” Global Biogeochemical Cycles, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 235–252, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. J. N. Galloway, F. J. Dentener, D. G. Capone et al., “Nitrogen cycles: past, present, and future,” Biogeochemistry, vol. 70, no. 2, pp. 153–226, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  3. S. Grice, J. Stedman, A. Kent et al., “Recent trends and projections of primary NO2 emissions in Europe,” Atmospheric Environment, vol. 43, no. 13, pp. 2154–2167, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. G. P. Peters, T. B. Nilssen, L. Lindholt et al., “Future emissions from shipping and petroleum activities in the Arctic,” Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol. 11, no. 11, pp. 5305–5320, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  5. R. R. Dickerson, “Reactive nitrogen compounds in the Arctic,” Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 90, no. 6, pp. 10739–10743, 1985. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. M. H. Bergin, “The contributions of snow, fog, and dry deposition to the summer flux of anions and cations at Summit, Greenland,” Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 100, no. 8, pp. 16275–16288, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. E. Isaksson, M. Hermanson, S. Hicks et al., “Ice cores from Svalbard—useful archives of past climate and pollution history,” Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, vol. 28, no. 28–32, pp. 1217–1228, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. M. G. Hastings, J. C. Jarvis, and E. J. Steig, “Anthropogenic impacts on nitrogen isotopes of ice-core nitrate,” Science, vol. 324, no. 5932, p. 1288, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. L. R. Hole, J. H. Christensen, T. Ruoho-Airola, K. Tørseth, V. Ginzburg, and P. Glowacki, “Past and future trends in concentrations of sulphur and nitrogen compounds in the Arctic,” Atmospheric Environment, vol. 43, no. 4, pp. 928–939, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. W. Aas et al., “Monitoring of long-range transported air pollutants,” Annual Report OR 29/2011, Norwegian Institute for Air Research, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  11. J. W. Erisman, P. Grennfelt, and M. Sutton, “The European perspective on nitrogen emission and deposition,” Environment International, vol. 29, no. 2-3, pp. 311–325, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. V. Vestreng, L. Ntziachristos, A. Semb, S. Reis, I. S. A. Isaksen, and L. Tarrasón, “Evolution of NOx emissions in Europe with focus on road transport control measures,” Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 1503–1520, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. M. A. Sutton et al., Ed., The European Nitrogen Assessment, Cambridge University Press, 2011.
  14. P. S. Monks, C. Granier, S. Fuzzi et al., “Atmospheric composition change—global and regional air quality,” Atmospheric Environment, vol. 43, no. 33, pp. 5268–5350, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. J. H. Seinfeld and S. N. Pandis, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics: From Air Pollution to Climate Change, John Wiley & Sons, 2nd edition, 2006.
  16. EMEP, Emep Assessment Part 1, European Perspective, Norwegian Meteorological Institute, EMEP Assessment Report, 2004.
  17. H. Fagerli and W. Aas, “Trends of nitrogen in air and precipitation: model results and observations at EMEP sites in Europe, 1980–2003,” Environmental Pollution, vol. 154, no. 3, pp. 448–461, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. D. Fowler, J. Muller, R. I. Smith, J. N. Cape, and J. W. Erisman, “Nonlinearities in source receptor relationships for sulfur and nitrogen compounds,” Ambio, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 41–46, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. L. A. Barrie, “Arctic air pollution: an overview of current knowledge,” Atmospheric Environment, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 643–663, 1986. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. G. E. Shaw, “The Arctic haze phenomenon,” Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, vol. 76, no. 12, pp. 2403–2413, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. A. Klonecki, P. Hess, L. Emmons, L. Smith, J. Orlando, and D. Blake, “Seasonal changes in the transport of pollutants into the Arctic troposphere-model study,” Journal of Geophysical Research D, vol. 108, no. 4, p. 21, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. K. Eneroth, E. Kjellstrom, and K. Holmen, A Trajectory Climatology for Svalbard; Investigating How Atmospheric Flow Patterns Influence Observed Tracer Concentrations, Pergamon-Elsevier Science, 2003.
  23. A. Stohl, “Characteristics of atmospheric transport into the Arctic troposphere,” Journal of Geophysical Research D, vol. 111, no. 11, Article ID D11306, p. 17, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. J. J. Cassano, P. Uotila, and A. Lynch, “Changes in synoptic weather patterns in the polar regions in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries, part 1: Arctic,” International Journal of Climatology, vol. 26, no. 8, pp. 1027–1049, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. J. J. Cassano, P. Uotila, A. H. Lynch, and E. N. Cassano, “Predicted changes in synoptic forcing of net precipitation in large Arctic river basins during the 21st century,” Journal of Geophysical Research G, vol. 112, no. 4, Article ID G04S49, p. 20, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. E. J. Førland, I. Hanssen-Bauer, and P. Ø. Nordli, “Climate statistics & longterm series of temperature and precipitation at Svalbard and Jan Mayen,” Tech. Rep., The Norwegian Meteorological Institute, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  27. S. V. Krupa, “Sampling and physico-chemical analysis of precipitation: a review,” Environmental Pollution, vol. 120, no. 3, pp. 565–594, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. I. Hansen-Bauer, E. J. Førland, and P. Ø. Nordli, “Measured and true precipitation at Svalbard,” Tech. Rep., The Norwegian Meteorological Institute, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  29. A. M. Grannas, A. E. Jones, J. Dibb et al., “An overview of snow photochemistry: evidence, mechanisms and impacts,” Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol. 7, no. 16, pp. 4329–4373, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. H. J. Beine, F. Domine, A. Ianniello et al., “Fluxes of nitrates between snow surfaces and the atmosphere in the European high Arctic,” Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 335–346, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  31. G. R. Shaver and F. S. Chapin, “Response to fertilization by various plant-growth forms in an alaskan tundra—nutrient accumulation and growth,” Ecology, vol. 61, no. 3, pp. 662–675, 1980. View at Google Scholar
  32. C. Gordon, J. M. Wynn, and S. J. Woodin, “Impacts of increased nitrogen supply on high Arctic heath: the importance of bryophytes and phosphorus availability,” New Phytologist, vol. 149, no. 3, pp. 461–471, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. S. J. T. Arens, P. F. Sullivan, and J. M. Welker, “Nonlinear responses to nitrogen and strong interactions with nitrogen and phosphorus additions drastically alter the structure and function of a high arctic ecosystem,” Journal of Geophysical Research G, vol. 113, no. 3, Article ID G03S09, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. T. J. Roberts, A. Hodson, C. D. Evans, and K. Holmen, “Modelling the impacts of a nitrogen pollution event on the biogeochemistry of an Arctic glacier,” Annals of Glaciology, vol. 51, no. 56, pp. 163–170, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  35. A. Hodson, T. J. Roberts, A. C. Engvall, K. Holmén, and P. Mumford, “Glacier ecosystem response to episodic nitrogen enrichment in Svalbard, European High Arctic,” Biogeochemistry, vol. 98, no. 1–3, pp. 171–184, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. Eklima, http://ebas.nilu.no.
  37. Nilu Particulate Fallout and Precipitation Collectors, http://www.niluinnovation.com/ProductsDivision/ParticulateFalloutandPrecipitationCollectors/tabid/1937/Default.aspx.
  38. Ebas, http://www.eklima.no.
  39. EMEP, “Manual for sampling and chemical analysis,” EMEP/CCC Report 1/95, Norwegian Institute for Air Research, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  40. WMO, “Manual for the gaw precipitation chemistry programme—guidelines, data quality objectives and standard operating procedures (Wmo Td No. 1251),” WMO Report 160, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  41. A. G. Hjellbrekke and A. M. Fjæraa, “Data report 2009 acidifying and eutrophying compounds and particulate matter,” EMEP/CCC Report 1/2011, Norwegian Institute for Air Research, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  42. D. Hirdman, H. Sodemann, S. Eckhardt et al., “Source identification of short-lived air pollutants in the Arctic using statistical analysis of measurement data and particle dispersion model output,” Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 669–693, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus