Figure 4: Vertical structures of cross-Atlantics Sahara dust measured by CALIPSO LIDAR and comparison with the model simulation (averaged in the grid box latitude from −15° to 45° and longitude from −100° to 30°). (a) frequency of dust aerosols occurrence with mean dust layer base and top heights, (b) dust extinction coefficient, (c) dust aerosol particle depolarization ratio, (d) dust mass mixing ratio (assuming the specific extinction coefficient is 0.7 m2 g−1), (e) dust mixing ratio obtained from the DEAD dust model (1990–1999 ten year average), (f) dust column mass path.