Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Advances in Meteorology
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 929080, 18 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/929080
Research Article

An Assessment of Pseudo-Operational Ground-Based Light Detection and Ranging Sensors to Determine the Boundary-Layer Structure in the Coastal Atmosphere

1School of Physics and Centre for Climate and Air Pollution Studies, Ryan Institute, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland
2Leosphere, 76 rue Monceau, 75008 Paris, France
3Laboratoire de Meteorologie Dynamique, Ecole Polytechnique (LMD), 91128 Palaiseau, France
4Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement (LSCE) Unité Mixte IPSL-UVSQ-CNRS-CEA, Orme des Merisiers, 91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette Cedex, France
5Max Planck Institute of Biogeochemistry, Hans-Knöll-Straße 10, 07745 Jena, Germany

Received 14 December 2011; Revised 17 March 2012; Accepted 20 March 2012

Academic Editor: Ismail Gultepe

Copyright © 2012 Conor Milroy et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. J. M. White, J. F. Bowers, S. R. Hanna, and J. K. Lundquist, “Importance of using observations of mixing depths in order to avoid large prediction errors by a transport and dispersion model,” Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 22–32, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. G. J. Kunz, G. De Leeuw, E. Becker, and C. D. O'Dowd, “Lidar observations of atmospheric boundary layer structure and sea spray aerosol plumes generation and transport at Mace Head, Ireland (PARFORCE experiment),” Journal of Geophysical Research D, vol. 107, no. 19, article 8106, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. S. Serafin and D. Zardi, “Structure of the atmospheric boundary layer in the vicinity of a developing upslope flow system: a numerical model study,” Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, vol. 67, no. 4, pp. 1171–1185, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. M. Haeffelin, F. Angelini, Y. Morille et al., “Evaluation of Mixing-Height Retrievals from Automatic Profiling Lidars and Ceilometers in View of Future Integrated Networks in Europe,” Boundary-Layer Meteorology, vol. 143, no. 1, pp. 49–75, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  5. A. Colette, L. Menut, M. Haeffelin, and Y. Morille, “Impact of the transport of aerosols from the free troposphere towards the boundary layer on the air quality in the Paris area,” Atmospheric Environment, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 390–402, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. C. Flamant, P. Knippertz, D. J. Parker et al., “The impact of a mesoscale convective system cold pool on the northward propagation of the intertropical discontinuity over West Africa,” Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, vol. 135, no. 638, pp. 139–159, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. D. B. Karam, C. Flamant, P. Tulet, M. C. Todd, J. Pelon, and E. Williams, “Dry cyclogenesis and dust mobilization in the intertropical discontinuity of the West African Monsoon: a case study,” Journal of Geophysical Research D, vol. 114, no. 5, Article ID D05115, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. H. Flentje, H. Claude, T. Elste et al., “The Eyjafjallajökull eruption in April 2010—detection of volcanic plume using in-situ measurements, ozone sondes and lidar-ceilometer profiles,” Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol. 10, no. 20, pp. 10085–10092, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. C. D. O’Dowd, D. Ceburnis, J. Ovadnevaite et al., “The eyjafjallajökull ash plume e—part I: physical, chemical and optical characteristics,” Atmospheric Environment, vol. 48, pp. 129–142, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  10. C. D. O’Dowd, S. Varghese, R. Flanagan et al., “The eyjafjallajökull ash plume—part 2: forecasting ash cloud dispersion,” Atmospheric Environment, vol. 48, pp. 143–151, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  11. I. Salma, I. Balásházy, R. Winkler-Heil, W. Hofmann, and G. Záray, “Effect of particle mass size distribution on the deposition of aerosols in the human respiratory system,” Journal of Aerosol Science, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 119–132, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. J. M. Hales, L. C. Schwendiman, and T. W. Horst, “Aerosol transport in a naturally-convected boundary layer,” International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, vol. 15, no. 10, pp. 1837–1850, 1972. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. A. F. Mills and A. T. Wassel, “Aerosol transport in a thermally driven natural convection boundary layer,” Letters in Heat and Mass Transfer, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 159–167, 1975. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. M. Dall'Osto, D. Ceburnis, G. Martucci et al., “Aerosol properties associated with air masses arriving into the North East Atlantic during the 2008 Mace Head EUCAARI intensive observing period: An overview,” Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol. 10, pp. 8413–8435, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  15. R. G. Derwent, P. G. Simmonds, and W. J. Collins, “Ozone and carbon monoxide measurements at a remote maritime location, Mace Head, Ireland, from 1990 to 1992,” Atmospheric Environment, vol. 28, no. 16, pp. 2623–2637, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. F. M. McGovern, A. Krasenbrink, S. G. Jennings et al., “Mass measurements of aerosol at Mace Head, on the west coast of Ireland,” Atmospheric Environment, vol. 28, no. 7, pp. 1311–1318, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. S. Huang, R. Arimoto, and K. A. Rahn, “Sources and source variations for aerosol at Mace Head, Ireland,” Atmospheric Environment, vol. 35, no. 8, pp. 1421–1437, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. R. Boers, H. Russchenberg, J. Erkelens et al., “Ground-based remote sensing of stratocumulus properties during CLARA, 1996,” Journal of Applied Meteorology, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 169–181, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. E. E. Clothiaux, T. P. Ackerman, G. G. Mace et al., “Objective determination of cloud heights and radar reflectivities using a combination of active remote sensors at the ARM CART sites,” Journal of Applied Meteorology, vol. 39, no. 5, pp. 645–665, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. C. P. Kalb, A. R. Dean, R. A. Peppler, and K. L. Sonntag, “Intercomparison of cloud base height at the ARM Southern Great plains site,” in Proceedings of the 14th Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM '04), U.S. Department of Energy, Albuquerque, NM, USA, 2004.
  21. M. Sicard, C. Pérez, F. Rocadenbosch, J. M. Baldasano, and D. García-Vizcaino, “Mixed layer depth determination in the Barcelona costal area from regular lidar measurements: methods, results and limitations,” Boundary-Layer Meteorology, vol. 119, no. 1, pp. 135–157, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  22. O. P. Cramer, “Potential temperature analysis for mountainous terrain,” Journal of Applied Meteorology, vol. 11, pp. 44–50, 1972. View at Google Scholar
  23. W. A. J. Van Pul, A. A. M. Holtslag, and D. P. J. Swart, “A comparison of ABL heights inferred routinely from lidar and radiosondes at noontime,” Boundary-Layer Meteorology, vol. 68, no. 1-2, pp. 173–191, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. S. F. J. De Wekker, M. Kossmann, and F. Fielder, “Observations of daytime mixed layer heights over mountainous terrain during the TRACT field campaign,” in Proceedings of the 12th Symposium on Boundary Layers and Turbulence, pp. 498–499, American Meteorological Society, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 1997.
  25. G. Martucci, R. Matthey, V. Mitev, and H. Richner, “Comparison between backscatter lidar and radiosonde measurements of the diurnal and nocturnal stratification in the lower troposphere,” Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, vol. 24, no. 7, pp. 1231–1244, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. G. Martucci, C. Milroy, and C. D. O'Dowd, “Detection of cloud-base height using Jenoptik CHM15K and Vaisala CL31 ceilometers,” Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 305–318, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. G. Martucci, R. Matthey, V. Mitev, and H. Richner, “Frequency of boundary-layer-top fluctuations in convective and stable conditions using laser remote sensing,” Boundary-Layer Meteorology, vol. 135, no. 2, pp. 313–331, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. J. D. Klett, “Stable analytical inversion solution for processing lidar returns,” Applied Optics, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 211–220, 1981. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. H. Flentje, B. Heese, J. Reichardt, and W. Thomas, “Aerosol profiling using the ceilometer 10 network of the German meteorological service,” Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, vol. 3, pp. 3643–3673, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  30. B. Heese, H. Flentje, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, and S. Frey, “Ceilometer lidar comparison: backscatter coefficient retrieval and signal-to-noise ratio determination,” Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, vol. 3, pp. 1763–1770, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  31. C. Münkel, N. Eresmaa, J. Räsänen, and A. Karppinen, “Retrieval of mixing height and dust concentration with lidar ceilometer,” Boundary-Layer Meteorology, vol. 124, no. 1, pp. 117–128, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. R. B. Stull, An Introduction to Boundary-Layer Meteorology, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1988.
  33. G. Martucci and C. D. O’Dowd, “ICOS field campaign at mace head,” Tech. Rep., Ireland, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  34. C. Weitkamp, “Lidar: range-resolved optical remote sensing of the atmosphere,” Springer Series of Optical Sciences, vol. 102, p. 460, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  35. C. Flamant, J. Pelon, P. H. Flamant, and P. Durand, “Lidar determination of the entrainment zone thickness at the top of the unstable marine atmospheric boundary layer,” Boundary-Layer Meteorology, vol. 83, no. 2, pp. 247–284, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. L. Menut, C. Flamant, J. Pelon, and P. H. Flamant, “Urban boundary-layer height determination from lidar measurements over the Paris area,” Applied Optics, vol. 38, no. 6, pp. 945–954, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. B. Hennemuth and A. Lammert, “Determination of the atmospheric boundary layer height from radiosonde and lidar backscatter,” Boundary-Layer Meteorology, vol. 120, no. 1, pp. 181–200, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. W. P. Hooper and E. W. Eloranta, “Lidar measurements of wind in the planetary boundary layer: the method, accuracy and results from joint measurements with radiosonde and kytoon.,” Journal of Climate & Applied Meteorology, vol. 25, no. 7, pp. 990–1001, 1986. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. D. G. Steyn, M. Baldi, and R. M. Hoff, “The detection of mixed layer depth and entrainment zone thickness from lidar backscatter profiles,” Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, vol. 16, no. 7, pp. 953–959, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. N. Eresmaa, A. Karppinen, S. M. Joffre, J. Räsänen, and H. Talvitie, “Mixing height determination by ceilometer,” Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 1485–1493, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. D. J. Seidel, C. O. Ao, and K. Li, “Estimating climatological planetary boundary layer heights from radiosonde observations: comparison of methods and uncertainty analysis,” Journal of Geophysical Research D, vol. 115, no. 16, Article ID D16113, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus