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Advances in Meteorology
Volume 2013, Article ID 573786, 13 pages
Research Article

A Study on the Effects of the Ice Microphysics on Tropical Cyclones

Research Institute for Global Change, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, 3173-25 Showa-machi, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama 236-0001, Japan

Received 18 December 2012; Revised 25 March 2013; Accepted 3 April 2013

Academic Editor: Richard Leaitch

Copyright © 2013 Masanori Yamasaki. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The effects of the ice microphysical processes on the development of weak vortices and tropical cyclones (TCs) are examined by numerical experiments with a nonhydrostatic model. Since it has been understood that the ice phase generally enhances the eyewall circulation in strong TCs because of additional heat release and insignificant effect of rainwater evaporation, this study focuses on the development of relatively weak vortices and TCs. Some past studies showed that the development is slower by the effects of the ice phase through cooling due to the melting of snow and graupel, whereas this study indicates that cooling due to evaporation of rainwater in the subcloud layer plays a much more important role in the slower development, and much more solid substances in the mid-troposphere, which are produced through the ice phase processes, contribute to more rainwater evaporation in the subcloud layer. The relative importance of many processes of the ice microphysics is also examined as a basis for future improvements of parameterization of the microphysical processes.