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Advances in Meteorology
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 738501, 10 pages
Research Article

The Mediterranean Oscillation Teleconnection Index: Station-Based versus Principal Component Paradigms

Physical Oceanography Group, Department of Applied Physics II, University of Málaga, 29071 Málaga, Spain

Received 15 September 2013; Revised 23 October 2013; Accepted 29 October 2013

Academic Editor: Anthony R. Lupo

Copyright © 2013 Francisco Criado-Aldeanueva and F. Javier Soto-Navarro. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Two different paradigms of the Mediterranean Oscillation (MO) teleconnection index have been compared in this work: station-based definitions obtained by the difference of some climate variable between two selected points in the eastern and western basins (i.e., Algiers and Cairo, Gibraltar and Israel, Marseille and Jerusalem, or south France and Levantine basin) and the principal component (PC) approach in which the index is obtained as the time series of the first mode of normalised sea level pressure anomalies across the extended Mediterranean region. Interannual to interdecadal precipitation ( ), evaporation ( ), - , and net heat flux have been correlated with the different MO indices to compare their relative importance in the long-term variability of heat and freshwater budgets over the Mediterranean Sea. On an annual basis, the PC paradigm is the most effective tool to assess the effect of the large-scale atmospheric forcing in the Mediterranean Sea because the station-based indices exhibit a very poor correlation with all climatic variables and only influence a reduced fraction of the basin. In winter, the station-based indices highly improve their ability to represent the atmospheric forcing and results are fairly independent of the paradigm used.