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Advances in Meteorology
Volume 2014, Article ID 161730, 27 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/161730
Review Article

Atmospheric Deposition: Sampling Procedures, Analytical Methods, and Main Recent Findings from the Scientific Literature

1LEnviroS Srl, Spin-Off of University of Bari, Via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari, Italy
2Apulia Regions Environmental Protection Agency (ARPA Puglia), Corso Trieste 27, 70126 Bari, Italy
3Chemistry Department, University of Bari “Aldo Moro”, Via Orabona 4, 70125 Bari, Italy

Received 18 March 2014; Revised 15 May 2014; Accepted 18 May 2014; Published 19 June 2014

Academic Editor: Carlos Borrego

Copyright © 2014 M. Amodio et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The atmosphere is a carrier on which some natural and anthropogenic organic and inorganic chemicals are transported, and the wet and dry deposition events are the most important processes that remove those chemicals, depositing it on soil and water. A wide variety of different collectors were tested to evaluate site-specificity, seasonality and daily variability of settleable particle concentrations. Deposition fluxes of POPs showed spatial and seasonal variations, diagnostic ratios of PAHs on deposited particles, allowed the discrimination between pyrolytic or petrogenic sources. Congener pattern analysis and bulk deposition fluxes in rural sites confirmed long-range atmospheric transport of PCDDs/Fs. More and more sophisticated and newly designed deposition samplers have being used for characterization of deposited mercury, demonstrating the importance of rain scavenging and the relatively higher magnitude of Hg deposition from Chinese anthropogenic sources. Recently biological monitors demonstrated that PAH concentrations in lichens were comparable with concentrations measured in a conventional active sampler in an outdoor environment. In this review the authors explore the methodological approaches used for the assessment of atmospheric deposition, from the analysis of the sampling methods, the analytical procedures for chemical characterization of pollutants and the main results from the scientific literature.