Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Advances in Meteorology
Volume 2014, Article ID 340123, 17 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/340123
Review Article

On the Role of Climate Forcing by Volcanic Sulphate and Volcanic Ash

Institute of Geophysics, University of Hamburg, Geomatikum, Office 1411, Bundesstraße 55, 20146 Hamburg, Germany

Received 27 October 2013; Accepted 7 January 2014; Published 27 February 2014

Academic Editor: Klaus Dethloff

Copyright © 2014 Baerbel Langmann. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. R. Sparks, M. Bursik, J. Gilbert, L. Glaze, H. Sigurdsson, and A. Woods, Volcanic Plumes, John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, UK, 1997.
  2. H.-U. Schmincke, Volcanism, Springer, Berlin, Germany, 2004.
  3. W. I. Rose and A. J. Durant, “Fine ash content of explosive eruptions,” Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, vol. 186, no. 1-2, pp. 32–39, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. B. Zimanowski, K. Wohletz, P. Dellino, and R. Büttner, “The volcanic ash problem,” Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, vol. 122, no. 1-2, pp. 1–5, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. R. B. Symonds, W. I. Rose, G. J. S. Bluth, and T. M. Gerlach, “Volcanic gas studies: methods, results and applications,” in Volatiles in Magma, M. R. Caroll and J. R. Holloway, Eds., vol. 30 of Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry, pp. 1–66, 1994. View at Google Scholar
  6. A. Robock, “Volcanic eruptions and climate,” Reviews of Geophysics, vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 191–219, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. P. M. Ayris, A. F. Lee, K. Wilson, U. Kueppers, D. B. Dingwell, and P. Delmelle, “SO2 sequestration in large volcanic eruptions: high-temperature scavenging by tephra,” Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, vol. 110, no. 1, pp. 58–69, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  8. G. Hoshyaripour, Modulation of ash iron solubility in volcanic eruption plumes [Ph.D. thesis], University of Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany, 2013.
  9. A. Aiuppa, A. Franco, R. von Glasow et al., “The tropospheric processing of acidic gases and hydrogen sulphide in volcanic gas plumes as inferred from field and model investigations,” Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 1441–1450, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. P. V. Hobbs, D. A. Hegg, and L. F. Radke, “Resuspension of volcanic ash from Mount St. Helens,” Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 88, pp. 3919–3921, 1983. View at Google Scholar
  11. D. Hadley, G. L. Hufford, and J. J. Simpson, “Resuspension of relic volcanic ash and dust from Katmai: still an aviation hazard,” Weather and Forecasting, vol. 19, pp. 829–840, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  12. T. M. Wilson, J. W. Cole, C. Stewart, S. J. Cronin, and D. M. Johnston, “Ash storms: impacts of wind-remobilised volcanic ash on rural communities and agriculture following the 1991 Hudson eruption, Chile,” Bulletin of Volcanology, vol. 73, no. 3, pp. 223–239, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. S. J. Leadbetter, M. C. Hort, S. von Löwi, K. Weber, and C. S. Witham, “Modeling the resuspension of ash deposited during the eruption of Eyjafjallajökull in spring 2010,” Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 117, no. 20, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. T. Thorsteinsson, G. Gísladóttir, J. Bullard, and G. McTainsh, “Dust storm contributions to airborne particulate matter in Reykjavík, Iceland,” Atmospheric Environment, vol. 45, no. 32, pp. 5924–5933, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. T. Thorsteinsson, T. Jóhannsson, A. Stohl, and N. I. Kristiansen, “High levels of particulate matter in Iceland due to direct ash emissions by the Eyjafjallajökull eruption and resuspension of deposited ash,” Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 117, no. 9, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. M. P. McCormick, L. W. Thomason, and C. R. Trepte, “Atmospheric effects of the Mt Pinatubo eruption,” Nature, vol. 373, no. 6513, pp. 399–404, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. J. B. Pollack, O. B. Toon, C. Sagan, A. Summers, B. Baldwin, and W. van Camp, “C. G. Newhall, and S. Self, “The volcanic exposivity idex (VEI)—an estimate of explosive magnitude for historical volcanism,” Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 81, pp. 1071–1083, 1976. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  18. C. G. Newhall and S. Self, “The volcanic explosivity index (VEI)—an estimate of explosive magnitude for historical volcanism,” Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 87, no. 2, pp. 1231–1238, 1982. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  19. M. R. Rampino and S. Self, “Sulphur-rich volcanic eruptions and stratospheric aerosols,” Nature, vol. 310, no. 5979, pp. 677–679, 1984. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. J. F. Luhr, I. S. E. Carmichael, and J. C. Varekamp, “The 1982 eruptions of El Chichón volcano, Chiapas, Mexico: mineralogy and petrology of the anhydritebearing pumices,” Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, vol. 23, no. 1-2, pp. 69–108, 1984. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. M. M. Halmer, H.-U. Schmincke, and H.-F. Graf, “The annual volcanic gas input into the atmosphere, in particular into the stratosphere: a global data set for the past 100 years,” Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, vol. 115, no. 3-4, pp. 511–528, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. A. Aiuppa, S. Inguaggiato, A. J. S. McGonigle et al., “H2S fluxes from Mt. Etna, Stromboli, and Vulcano (Italy) and implications for the sulfur budget at volcanoes,” Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, vol. 69, no. 7, pp. 1861–1871, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. L. Clarisse, P.-F. Coheur, S. Chefdeville, J.-L. Lacour, D. Hurtmans, and C. Clerbaux, “Infrared satellite observations of hydrogen sulfide in the volcanic plume of the August 2008 Kasatochi eruption,” Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 38, no. 10, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. H. H. Lamb, “Volcanic dust in the atmosphere, with a chronology and assessment of its meteorological significance,” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A, vol. 266, no. 1178, pp. 425–533, 1970. View at Google Scholar
  25. O. B. Toon and J. B. Pollack, “Atmospheric aerosols and climate,” American Scientist, vol. 68, no. 3, pp. 268–278, 1980. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. K. Y. Kondratyev, “Volcanoes and climate,” WCP-54 WMO/TD-166, World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 1988. View at Google Scholar
  27. A. Robock, “Volcanoes and climate,” in Climate and Geo-Sciences: A Challenge for Science and Society in the 21st Century, vol. 285 of NATO ASI Series C, pp. 309–314, 1989. View at Google Scholar
  28. A. Robock, “The volcanic contribution to climate change of the past 100 years,” in Greenhouse-Gas-Induced Climatic Change: A Critical Appraisal of Simulations and Observations, M. E. Schlesinger, Ed., pp. 429–444, Elsevier Sciences, New York, NY, USA, 1991. View at Google Scholar
  29. K. Y. Kondratyev and I. Galindo, Volcanic Activity and Climate, A. Deepak, Hampton, Va, USA, 1997.
  30. G. A. Zielinski, “Use of paleo-records in determining variability within the volcanism-climate system,” Quaternary Science Reviews, vol. 19, no. 1–5, pp. 417–438, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. C. Textor, H.-F. Graf, C. Timmreck, and A. Robock, “Emissions from volcanoes,” in Emissions of Chemical Compounds and Aerosols in the Atmosphere, C. Granier, C. Reeves, and P. Artaxo, Eds., vol. 18 of Advances in Global Change Research, pp. 269–303, Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  32. J. Cole-Dai, “Volcanoes and climate,” Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews, vol. 1, no. 6, pp. 824–839, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. R. F. Pueschel, P. B. Russell, D. A. Allen et al., “Physical and optical properties of the Pinatubo volcanic areosol: aircraft observations with impactors and a Sun-tracking photometer,” Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 99, no. 6, pp. 12915–12922, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, R. F. Pueschel et al., “Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol derived from diverse measurements and analyses,” Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 101, no. 13, pp. 18745–18763, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. S. Duggen, P. Croot, U. Schacht, and L. Hoffmann, “Subduction zone volcanic ash can fertilize the surface ocean and stimulate phytoplankton growth: evidence from biogeochemical experiments and satellite data,” Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 34, no. 1, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. B. Langmann, K. Zakšek, M. Hort, and S. Duggen, “Volcanic ash as fertiliser for the surface ocean,” Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol. 10, no. 8, pp. 3891–3899, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. N. Olgun, S. Duggen, P. L. Croot et al., “Surface ocean iron fertilization: the role of airborne volcanic ash from subduction zone and hot spot volcanoes and related iron fluxes into the Pacific Ocean,” Global Biogeochemical Cycles, vol. 25, no. 4, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. L. J. Hoffmann, E. Breitbarth, M. V. Ardelan et al., “Influence of trace metal release from volcanic ash on growth of Thalassiosira pseudonana and Emiliania huxleyi,” Marine Chemistry, vol. 132-133, pp. 28–33, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. E. P. Achterberg, C. M. Moore, A. Henson et al., “Natural iron fertilization by the Eyjafjallajökull volcanic eruption,” Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 40, no. 5, pp. 921–926, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  40. J. L. Sarmiento, “Atmospheric CO2 stalled,” Nature, vol. 365, no. 6448, pp. 697–698, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. A. J. Watson, “Volcanic Fe, CO2, ocean productivity and climate,” Nature, vol. 385, no. 6617, pp. 587–588, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. R. C. Hamme, P. W. Webley, W. R. Crawford et al., “Volcanic ash fuels anomalous plankton bloom in subarctic Northeast Pacific,” Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 37, no. 19, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. D. Lockwood, P. D. Quay, M. T. Kavanaugh, L. W. Juranek, and R. A. Feely, “High-resolution estimates of net community production and air-sea CO2 flux in the Northeast Pacific,” Global Biogeochemical Cycles, vol. 26, no. 4, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  44. A. Lindenthal, B. Langmann, J. Paetsch, I. Lorkorwski, and M. Hort, “The ocean response to volcanic iron fertilization after the eruption of Kasatochi volcano: a regional biogeochemical model study,” Biogeosciences, vol. 10, pp. 3715–3729, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  45. T. D. Jickells, Z. S. An, K. K. Andersen et al., “Global iron connections between desert dust, ocean biogeochemistry, and climate,” Science, vol. 308, no. 5718, pp. 67–71, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. T. Simkin and I. Siebert, Volcanoes of the World, Smithonian Institution, Geoscience Press, Misoula, Mont, USA, 1994.
  47. T. A. Mather, D. M. Pyle, and C. Oppenheimer, “Tropospheric volcanic aerosol,” in Volcanism and the Earth’s Atmosphere, vol. 139 of Geophysical Monograph, pp. 89–211, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  48. B. Langmann, “Volcanic ash versus mineral dust: atmospheric processing and environmental and climate impacts,” ISRN Atmospheric Sciences, vol. 2013, Article ID 245076, 17 pages, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  49. H.-F. Graf, J. Feichter, and B. Langmann, “Volcanic sulfur emissions: estimates of source strength and its contribution to the global sulfate distribution,” Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 102, no. 9, pp. 10727–10738, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. G. Heiken, “Morphology and petrography of volcanic ashes,” Geological Society of America Bulletin, vol. 83, no. 7, pp. 1961–1988, 1972. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  51. G. K. Bayhurst, K. H. Wohletz, and A. S. Mason, “A method for characterising volcanic ash from the December 5, 1989, eruption of Redoubt volcano, Alaska,” in Proceedings of the 1st International Symposium on Volcanic Ash and Aviation Safety, Chapter A Method for Characterizing Volcanic Ash, vol. 2074 of USGS Bulletin, pp. 13–17, 1991.
  52. M. Nakagawa and T. Ohba, “Minerals in volcanic ash 1: primary minerals and volcanic glass,” Global Environmental Research, vol. 6, pp. 41–51, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  53. A. Belousov, M. Belousova, and B. Voight, “Multiple edifice failures, debris avalanches and associated eruptions in the Holocene history of Shiveluch volcano, Kamchatka, Russia,” Bulletin of Volcanology, vol. 61, no. 5, pp. 324–342, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. J. D. Devine, H. Sigurdsson, A. N. Davis, and S. Self, “Estimates of sulfur and chlorine yield to the atmosphere from volcanic eruptions and potential climatic effects,” Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 89, no. 7, pp. 6309–6325, 1984. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. T. M. Gerlach, H. R. Westrich, and R. B. Symonds, “Preeruption vapor in magma of the climatic Mount Pinatubo eruption: source of the giant stratospheric sulfur dioxide cloud,” in Fire and Mud: Eruptions and Lahars of Mount Pinatubo, Philippines, C. G. Newhall and R. S. Punongbayan, Eds., pp. 415–433, University of Washington Press, Seattle, Wash, USA, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  56. P. J. Wallace, “Volcanic SO2 emissions and the abundance and distribution of exsolved gas in magma bodies,” Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, vol. 108, no. 1–4, pp. 85–106, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. S. Self and A. J. King, “Petrology and sulfur and chlorine emissions of the 1963 eruption of Gunung Agung, Bali, Indonesia,” Bulletin of Volcanology, vol. 58, no. 4, pp. 263–285, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. R. J. Andres, W. I. Rose, P. R. Kyle et al., “Excessive sulfur dioxide emissions from Chilean volcanoes,” Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, vol. 46, no. 3-4, pp. 323–329, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. H. Shinohara, “Excess degassing from volcanoes and its role on eruptive and intrusive activity,” Reviews of Geophysics, vol. 46, no. 4, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. P. J. Wallace and T. M. Gerlach, “Magmatic vapor source for sulfur dioxide released during volcanic eruptions: evidence from Mount Pinatubo,” Science, vol. 265, no. 5171, pp. 497–499, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. J. C. M. de Hoog, K. H. Hattori, and R. P. Hoblitt, “Oxidized sulfur-rich mafic magma at Mount Pinatubo, Philippines,” Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, vol. 146, no. 6, pp. 750–761, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. C. Annen, J. D. Blundy, and R. S. J. Sparks, “The genesis of intermediate and silicic magmas in deep crustal hot zones,” Journal of Petrology, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 505–539, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. M. Edmonds, “New geochemical insights into volcanic degassing,” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A, vol. 366, no. 1885, pp. 4559–4579, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. J. Roberge, H. Delgado-Granados, P. J. Wallace, and A. J. Kent, “Pre-eruptive volatile contents of mafic magma at Popocatepetl volcano, Mexico, from olivine-hosted melt inclusions,” Eos Transactions AGU 88, Fall meeting supplement, abstract V41D-0794, 2007.
  65. G. Hoshyaripour, M. Hort, and B. Langmann, “How does the hot core of a volcanic plume control the sulfur speciation in volcanic emission?” Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, vol. 13, no. 7, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  66. L. Caricchi, L. Burlini, P. Ulmer, T. Gerya, M. Vassalli, and P. Papale, “Non-Newtonian rheology of crystal-bearing magmas and implications for magma ascent dynamics,” Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol. 264, no. 3-4, pp. 402–419, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. A. Folch and J. Martí, “Time-dependent chamber and vent conditions during explosive caldera-forming eruptions,” Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol. 280, no. 1–4, pp. 246–253, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. W. I. Rose, “Scavenging of volcanic aerosol by ash: atmospheric and volcanologic implications,” Geology, vol. 5, pp. 621–624, 1977. View at Google Scholar
  69. C. Textor, H.-F. Graf, M. Herzog, and J. M. Oberhuber, “Injection of gases into the stratosphere by explosive volcanic eruptions,” Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 108, no. 19, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  70. F. Farges, H. Keppler, A. M. Flank, and P. Lagarde, “Sulfur K-edge XANES study of S sorbed onto volcanic ashes,” Journal of Physics: Conference Series, vol. 190, no. 1, Article ID 012177, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. B. Langmann, A. Folch, M. Hensch, and V. Matthias, “Volcanic ash over Europe during the eruption of Eyjafjallajökull on Iceland, April-May 2010,” Atmospheric Environment, vol. 48, pp. 1–8, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. A. A. Colgate and T. Sigurgeirsson, “Dynamic mixing of water and lava,” Nature, vol. 244, no. 5418, pp. 552–555, 1973. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. T. M. Wilson, C. Stewart, V. Sword-Daniels et al., “Volcanic ash impacts on critical infrastructure,” Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, vol. 45-46, pp. 5–23, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. P. M. Ayris and P. Delmelle, “The immediate environmental effects of tephra emission,” Bulletin of Volcanology, vol. 74, pp. 1905–1936, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  75. M. R. James, L. Wilson, S. J. Lane et al., “Electrical charging of volcanic plumes,” Space Science Reviews, vol. 137, no. 1–4, pp. 399–418, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. S. R. McNutt and E. R. Williams, “Volcanic lightning: global observations and constraints on source mechanisms,” Bulletin of Volcanology, vol. 72, no. 10, pp. 1153–1167, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. A. Getahun, M. H. Reed, and R. Symonds, “Mount St. Augustine volcano fumarole wall rock alteration: mineralogy, zoning, composition and numerical models of its formation process,” Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, vol. 71, no. 2–4, pp. 73–107, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. F. Africano and A. Bernard, “Acid alteration in the fumarolic environment of Usu volcano, Hokkaido, Japan,” Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, vol. 97, no. 1–4, pp. 475–495, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. A. Burgisser and B. Scaillet, “Redox evolution of a degassing magma rising to the surface,” Nature, vol. 445, no. 7124, pp. 194–197, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. N. Óskarsson, “The interaction between volcanic gases and tephra: fluorine adhering to tephra of the 1970 Hekla eruption,” Journal of Volcanology & Geothermal Research, vol. 8, no. 2–4, pp. 251–266, 1980. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. F. H. Verhoff and J. T. Banchero, “Predicting dew points of gases,” Chemical Engineering Progress, vol. 78, pp. 71–72, 1974. View at Google Scholar
  82. E. Bagnato, A. Aiuppa, A. Bertagnini et al., “Scavenging of sulphur, halogens and trace metals by volcanic ash: the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption,” Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, vol. 103, pp. 138–160, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  83. J. M. de Moor, T. P. Fischer, D. R. Hilton, E. Hauri, and L. A. Jaffe, “Degassing at Anatahan volcano during the May 2003 eruption: implications from petrology, ash leachates, and SO2 emissions,” Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, vol. 146, no. 1–3, pp. 117–138, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. C. S. Witham, C. Oppenheimer, and C. J. Horwell, “Volcanic ash-leachates: a review and recommendations for sampling methods,” Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, vol. 141, no. 3-4, pp. 299–326, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. P. Frogner, S. R. Gíslason, and N. Óskarsson, “Fertilizing potential of volcanic ash in ocean surface water,” Geology, vol. 29, no. 6, pp. 487–490, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. S. Duggen, N. Olgun, P. Croot et al., “The role of airborne volcanic ash for the surface ocean biogeochemical iron-cycle: a review,” Biogeosciences, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 827–844, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. P. S. Taylor and R. E. Stoiber, “Soluble material on ash from active Central American volcanoes,” Geological Society of America Bulletin, vol. 84, pp. 1031–1042, 1973. View at Google Scholar
  88. D. B. Smith, R. A. Zielinski, W. I. Rose Jr., and B. J. Huebert, “Water-soluble material on aerosols collected within volcanic eruption clouds,” Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 87, no. 7, pp. 4963–4972, 1982. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. P. Delmelle, M. Lambert, Y. Dufrêne, P. Gerin, and N. Óskarsson, “Gas/aerosol-ash interaction in volcanic plumes: new insights from surface analyses of fine ash particles,” Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol. 259, no. 1-2, pp. 159–170, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. P. M. Ayris and P. Delmelle, “Volcanic and atmospheric controls on ash iron solubility: a review,” Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, vol. 45-46, pp. 103–112, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  91. J. Fero, S. N. Carey, and J. T. Merrill, “Simulating the dispersal of tephra from the 1991 Pinatubo eruption: implications for the formation of widespread ash layers,” Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, vol. 186, no. 1-2, pp. 120–131, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. B. Langmann, K. Zakšek, and M. Hort, “Atmospheric distribution and removal of volcanic ash after the eruption of Kasatochi volcano: a regional model study,” Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 115, no. 2, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  93. A. Tabazadeh and R. P. Turco, “A model for heterogeneous chemical processes on the surfaces of ice and nitric acid trihydrate particles,” Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 98, no. 7, pp. 12727–12740, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. J. H. Seinfeld and S. N. Pandis, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics: From Air Pollution to Climate Change, John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, USA, 2006.
  95. H. Bingemer, H. Klein, M. Ebert et al., “Atmospheric ice nuclei in the Eyjafjallajökull volcanic ash plume,” Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol. 12, pp. 857–867, 2012. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  96. N. Meskhidze, W. L. Chameides, A. Nenes, and G. Chen, “Iron mobilization in mineral dust: can anthropogenic SO2 emissions affect ocean productivity?” Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 30, no. 21, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  97. F. Solmon, P. Y. Chuang, N. Meskhidze, and Y. Chen, “Acidic processing of mineral dust iron by anthropogenic compounds over the north Pacific Ocean,” Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 114, no. 2, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  98. N. Meskhidze, W. L. Chameides, and A. Nenes, “Dust and pollution: a recipe for enhanced ocean fertilization?” Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 110, no. 3, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  99. A. R. Baker and P. L. Croot, “Atmospheric and marine controls on aerosol iron solubility in seawater,” Marine Chemistry, vol. 120, no. 1–4, pp. 4–13, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  100. Z. Shi, M. D. Krom, T. D. Jickels et al., “Impacts on iron solubility in the mineral dust by processes in the source region and the atmosphere: a review,” Aeolian Research, vol. 5, pp. 21–42, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  101. D. Jeong, K. Kim, and W. Choi, “Accelerated dissolution of iron oxides in ice,” Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol. 12, pp. 11125–11133, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  102. W. I. Rose, G. A. Millard, T. A. Mather et al., “Atmospheric chemistry of a 33-34 hour old volcanic cloud from Hekla volcano (Iceland): insights from direct sampling and the application of chemical box modeling,” Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 111, no. 20, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  103. T. Deshler, B. J. Johnson, and W. R. Rozier, “Balloonborne measurements of Pinatubo aerosol during 1991 and 1992 at 41°N: vertical profiles, size distribution, and volatility,” Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 20, no. 14, pp. 1435–1438, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  104. T. Deshler, D. J. Hofmann, B. J. Johnson, and W. R. Rozier, “Balloonborne measurements of the Pinatubo aerosol size distribution and volatility at Laramie, Wyoming during the summer of 1991,” Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 199–202, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  105. P. J. Sheridan, R. C. Schnell, D. J. Hofmann, and T. Deshler, “Electron microscope studies of Mt. Pinatubo aerosol layers over Laramie, Wyoming during summer 1991,” Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 203–206, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  106. P. Hamill, E. J. Jensen, P. B. Russell, and J. J. Bauman, “The life cycle of stratospheric aerosol particles,” Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, vol. 78, no. 7, pp. 1395–1410, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  107. N. A. Fuchs, The Mechanics of Aerosols, Pergamon Press, London, UK, 1964.
  108. J. T. Kiehl and B. P. Briegleb, “The relative roles of sulfate aerosols and greenhouse gases in climate forcing,” Science, vol. 260, no. 5106, pp. 311–314, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  109. G. K. Yue, L. R. Poole, P.-H. Wang, and E. W. Chiou, “Stratospheric aerosol acidity, density, and refractive index deduced from SAGE II and NMC temperature data,” Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 99, no. 2, pp. 3727–3738, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  110. P. J. Rasch, S. Tilmes, R. P. Turco et al., “An overview of geoengineering of climate using stratospheric sulphate aerosols,” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A, vol. 366, no. 1882, pp. 4007–4037, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  111. T. -I. Witt, Modelling the atmospheric dispersion and sedimentation of volcanic ash and sulphur of the August 1991 Cerro Hudson eruption [M.S. thesis], Institute of Geophysics, University of Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany, 2013.
  112. A. J. Prata and A. T. Prata, “Eyjafjallajökull volcanic ash concentrations determined using spin enhanced visible and infrared imager measurements,” Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 117, no. 20, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  113. H. N. Webster, D. J. Thomson, B. T. Johnson et al., “Operational prediction of ash concentrations in the distal volcanic cloud from the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption,” Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 117, no. 2, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  114. C. E. Junge and J. E. Manson, “Stratospheric aerosol studies,” Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 66, pp. 2163–2182, 1961. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  115. G. S. Kent and M. P. McCormick, “SAGE and SAM II measurements of global stratospheric aerosol optical depth and mass loading,” Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 89, no. 4, pp. 5303–5314, 1984. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  116. U. Jäger, H. Uchino, O. Nagai, T. Fujimoto, T. Freudenthaler, and V. Homburg, “Ground-based remote sensing of the decay of the Pinatubo eruption cloud at three Northern hemisphere sites,” Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 607–610, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  117. A. Ansmann, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, F. Wagner, J. Reichardt, and T. Deshler, “Evolution of the Pinatubo aerosol: raman lidar observations of particle optical depth, effective radius, mass, and surface area over central Europe at 53.4°N,” Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, vol. 54, no. 22, pp. 2630–2641, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  118. J. E. Barnes and D. J. Hofmann, “Lidar measurements of stratospheric aerosol over Mauna Loa Observatory,” Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 24, no. 15, pp. 1923–1926, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  119. T. Deshler, J. B. Liley, G. Bodeker, W. A. Matthews, and D. J. Hoffmann, “Stratospheric aerosol following Pinatubo, comparison of the north and south mid latitudes using in situ measurements,” Advances in Space Research, vol. 20, pp. 2057–2061, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  120. G. J. Symons, The Eruption of Krakatoa, and Subsequent Phenomena, Trübner, London, UK, 1888.
  121. A. Robock and M. Matson, “Circumglobal transport of the El Chichón volcanic dust cloud,” Science, vol. 221, no. 4606, pp. 195–197, 1983. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  122. G. J. S. Bluth, S. D. Doiron, S. C. Schnetzler, A. J. Krueger, and L. S. Walter, “Global tracking of the SO2 clouds from the June, 1991 Mount Pinatubo eruptions,” Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 151–154, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  123. I. J. Barton, A. J. Prata, I. G. Watterson, and S. A. Young, “Identification of the Mount Hudson volcanic cloud over SE Australia,” Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 19, no. 12, pp. 1211–1214, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  124. M. R. Schoeberl, S. D. Doiron, L. R. Lait, P. A. Newman, and A. J. Krueger, “A simulation of the Cerro Hudson SO2 cloud,” Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 98, no. 2, pp. 2949–2955, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  125. C. R. Trepte and M. H. Hitchman, “Tropical stratospheric circulation deduced from satellite aerosol data,” Nature, vol. 355, no. 6361, pp. 626–628, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  126. C. R. Trepte, R. E. Veiga, and M. P. McCormick, “The poleward dispersal of Mount Pinatubo volcanic aerosol,” Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 98, pp. 18563–18573, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  127. J. R. Holton, P. H. Haynes, M. E. McIntyre, A. R. Douglass, R. B. Rood, and L. Pfister, “Stratosphere-troposphere exchange,” Reviews of Geophysics, vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 403–439, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  128. R. Jaenicke, “Über die Dynamik atmosphärischer Aitkenteilchen,” Berichte der Bunsengesellschaft für Physikalische Chemie, vol. 82, no. 11, pp. 1198–1202, 1978. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  129. J. P. Pinto, R. P. Turco, and O. B. Toon, “Self-limiting physical and chemical effects in volcanic eruption clouds,” Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 94, no. 8, pp. 11165–11174, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  130. F. Kasten, “Falling speed of aerosol particles,” Journal of Applied Meteorology, vol. 7, pp. 944–947, 1968. View at Google Scholar
  131. P. Stier, J. Feichter, S. Kinne et al., “The aerosol-climate model ECHAM5-HAM,” Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 1125–1156, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  132. W. I. Rose and A. J. Durant, “Fate of volcanic ash: aggregation and fallout,” Geology, vol. 39, no. 9, pp. 895–896, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  133. R. J. Brown, C. Bonadonna, and A. J. Durant, “A review of volcanic ash aggregation,” Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, vol. 45-46, pp. 65–78, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  134. A. J. Durant, W. I. Rose, A. M. Sarna-Wojcicki, S. Carey, and A. C. M. Volentik, “Hydrometeor-enhanced tephra sedimentation: constraints from the 18 May 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens,” Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 114, no. 3, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  135. C. Bonadonna and A. Foch, “Ash Dispersal Forecast and Civil Aviation Workshop—Consensual Document,” 2011, https://vhub.org/resources/503.
  136. A. Folch, “A review of tephra transport and dispersal models: evolution, current status and future perspectives,” Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, vol. 235, pp. 96–115, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  137. C. Gao, A. Robock, and C. Ammann, “Volcanic forcing of climate over the past 1500 years: an improved ice core-based index for climate models,” Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 113, no. 23, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  138. T. J. Crowley and M. B. Unterman, “Technical details concerning development of a 1200-yr proxy index for global volcanism,” Earth System Science Data, vol. 5, pp. 187–197, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  139. C. Mass and A. Robock, “The short-term influence of the Mount St. Helens volcanic eruption on surface temperature in the northwest United States,” Monthly Weather Review, vol. 110, no. 6, pp. 614–619, 1982. View at Google Scholar
  140. P. J. Crutzen, “Albedo enhancement by stratospheric sulfur injections: a contribution to resolve a policy dilemma?” Climatic Change, vol. 77, no. 3-4, pp. 211–220, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  141. C. J. Preston, “Ethics and geoengineering: reviewing the moral issues raised by solar radiation management and carbon dioxide removal,” Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 23–37, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  142. S. Twomey, “The influence of pollution on the shortwave albedo of clouds,” Journal of Atmospheric Sciences, vol. 34, pp. 1149–1152, 1977. View at Google Scholar
  143. B. A. Albrecht, “Aerosols, cloud microphysics, and fractional cloudiness,” Science, vol. 245, no. 4923, pp. 1227–1230, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  144. D. Rosenfeld, U. Lohmann, G. B. Raga et al., “Flood or drought: how do aerosols affect precipitation?” Science, vol. 321, no. 5894, pp. 1309–1313, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  145. D. Rosenfeld, Y. Rudich, and R. Lahav, “Desert dust suppressing precipitation: a possible desertification feedback loop,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 98, no. 11, pp. 5975–5980, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  146. S. Gasso, “Satellite observations of the impact of weak volcanic activity on marine clouds,” Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 113, no. 14, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  147. F. J. Nober, H.-F. Graf, and D. Rosenfeld, “Sensitivity of the global circulation to the suppression of precipitation by anthropogenic aerosols,” Global and Planetary Change, vol. 37, no. 1-2, pp. 57–80, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  148. H. R. Pruppacher and J. D. Klett, Microphysics of Clouds and Precipitation, Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 2nd edition, 1997.
  149. A. J. Durant, R. A. Shaw, W. I. Rose, Y. Mi, and G. G. J. Ernst, “Ice nucleation and overseeding of ice in volcanic clouds,” Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 113, no. 9, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  150. P. Seifert, A. Ansmann, S. Groß et al., “Ice formation in ash-influenced clouds after the eruption of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in April 2010,” Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 116, no. 18, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  151. B. D. Santer, M. F. Wehner, T. M. L. Wigley et al., “Contributions of anthropogenic and natural forcing to recent tropopause height changes,” Science, vol. 301, no. 5632, pp. 479–483, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  152. J. A. Church, N. J. White, and J. M. Arblaster, “Significant decadal-scale impact of volcanic eruptions on sea level and ocean heat content,” Nature, vol. 438, no. 7064, pp. 74–77, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  153. K. Trenberth and A. Dai, “Effects of Mount Pinatubo volcanic eruption on the hydrological cycle as an analog of geoengineering,” Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 34, no. 15, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  154. G. Gu, R. F. Adler, G. J. Huffman, and S. Curtis, “Tropical rainfall variability on interannual-to-interdecadal and longer time scales derived from the GPCP monthly product,” Journal of Climate, vol. 20, no. 15, pp. 4033–4046, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  155. G. Stenchikov, T. L. Delworth, V. Ramaswamy, R. J. Stouffer, A. Wittenberg, and F. Zeng, “Volcanic signals in oceans,” Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 114, no. 16, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  156. L. M. Mercado, N. Bellouin, S. Sitch et al., “Impact of changes in diffuse radiation on the global land carbon sink,” Nature, vol. 458, no. 7241, pp. 1014–1017, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  157. T. L. Frölicher, F. Joos, C. C. Raible, and J. L. Sarmiento, “Atmospheric CO2 response to volcanic eruptions: the role of ENSO, season, and variability,” Global Biogeochemical Cycles, vol. 27, pp. 239–251, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  158. P. W. Boyd and M. J. Ellwood, “The biogeochemical cycle of iron in the ocean,” Nature Geoscience, vol. 3, no. 10, pp. 675–682, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  159. J. H. Martin, “Glacial-interglacial CO2 change: the iron hypothesis,” Paleoceanography, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 1–13, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  160. M. T. Jones and S. R. Gislason, “Rapid releases of metal salts and nutrients following the deposition of volcanic ash into aqueous environments,” Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, vol. 72, no. 15, pp. 3661–3680, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  161. N. M. Mahowald, A. R. Baker, G. Bergametti et al., “Atmospheric global dust cycle and iron inputs to the ocean,” Global Biogeochemical Cycles, vol. 19, no. 4, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  162. D. M. Gaiero, J.-L. Probst, P. J. Depetris, S. M. Bidart, and L. Leleyter, “Iron and other transition metals in Patagonian riverborne and windborne materials: geochemical control and transport to the southern South Atlantic Ocean,” Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, vol. 67, no. 19, pp. 3603–3623, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  163. C. D. O'Dowd, M. C. Facchini, F. Cavalli et al., “Biogenically driven organic contribution to marine aerosol,” Nature, vol. 431, no. 7009, pp. 676–680, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  164. P. Liss, A. Chuck, D. Bakker, and S. Turner, “Ocean fertilization with iron: effects on climate and air quality,” Tellus, vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 269–271, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  165. U. Lohmann and J. Feichter, “Global indirect aerosol effects: a review,” Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 715–737, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  166. R. A. Feely, S. C. Doney, and S. R. Cooley, “Ocean acidification: present conditions and future changes in a high-CO2 world,” Oceanography, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 36–47, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  167. L. H. Gu, D. D. Baldocchi, S. C. Wofsy et al., “Response of a deciduous forest to the Mount Pinatubo eruption: enhanced photosynthesis,” Science, vol. 299, no. 5615, pp. 2035–2038, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  168. S. M. Cather, N. W. Dunbar, F. W. McDowell, W. C. McIntosh, and P. A. Scholle, “Climate forcing by iron fertilization from repeated ignimbrite eruptions: the icehouse-silicic large igneous province (SLIP) hypothesis,” Geosphere, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 315–324, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  169. T. P. Parsons and F. A. Whitney, “Did volcanic ash from Kasatochi in 2008 contribute to a phenomenal increase in Fraser River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) in 2010,” Fisheries Oceanography, vol. 21, pp. 374–377, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  170. N. Olgun, S. Duggen, B. Langmann et al., “Geochemical evidence of oceanic iron fertilization by the Kasatochi volcanic eruption in 2008 and the potential impacts on Pacific sockeye salmon,” Marine Ecology Progress Series, vol. 488, pp. 81–88, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  171. S. McKinnell, “Challenges for the Kasatoshi volcano hypothesis as the cause of a large return of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) to the Fraser River in 2010,” Fisheries Oceanography, vol. 22, pp. 337–344, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  172. IPCC (International Panel of Climate Change) fourth assessment report: climate change, 2007.
  173. A. E. Bourassa, D. A. Degenstein, B. J. Elash, and E. J. Llewellyn, “Evolution of the stratospheric aerosol enhancement following the eruptions of Okmok and Kasatochi: Odin-OSIRIS measurements,” Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 115, no. 13, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  174. K. Yang, X. Liu, P. K. Bhartia et al., “Direct retrieval of sulfur dioxide amount and altitude from spaceborne hyperspectral UV measurements: theory and application,” Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 115, no. 18, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  175. B. Kravitz, A. Robock, and A. E. Bourassa, “Negligible climatic effects from the 2008 Okmok and Kasatochi volcanic eruptions,” Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 115, no. 2, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  176. R. A. Scasso, H. Corbella, and P. Tiberi, “Sedimentological analysis of the tephra from the 12–15 August 1991 eruption of Hudson volcano,” Bulletin of Volcanology, vol. 56, no. 2, pp. 121–132, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  177. D. J. Kratzmann, S. N. Carey, J. Fero, R. A. Scasso, and J.-A. Naranjo, “Simulations of tephra dispersal from the 1991 explosive eruptions of Hudson volcano, Chile,” Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, vol. 190, no. 3-4, pp. 337–352, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  178. J. L. Smellie, “The upper Cenozoic tephra record in the south polar region: a review,” Global and Planetary Change, vol. 21, no. 1–3, pp. 51–70, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  179. C. Rödenbeck, S. Houweling, M. Gloor, and M. Heimann, “CO2 flux history 1982–2001 inferred from atmospheric data using a global inversion of atmospheric transport,” Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol. 3, no. 6, pp. 1919–1964, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  180. J. Holmes, V. Hall, and P. Wilson, “Volcanoes and peat bogs,” Geology Today, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 60–63, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  181. G. T. Swindles, F. de Vleeschouwer, and G. Pliunkett, “Dating peat profiles using tephra: stratigraphy, geochemistry and chronology,” Mires and Peat, vol. 7, article 5, pp. 1–9, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  182. T. Deshler, A. Adriani, G. P. Gobbi, and D. J. Hofmann, “Volcanic aerosol and ozone depletion within the Antarctic polar vortex during the Austral spring of 1991,” Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 19, no. 18, pp. 1819–1822, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  183. M. C. Pitts and L. W. Thomason, “The impact of the eruptions of Mount Pinatubo and Cerro Hudson on Antarctic aerosol levels during the 1991 Austral spring,” Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 20, no. 22, pp. 2451–2454, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  184. E. G. Dutton and J. R. Christy, “Solar radiative forcing at selected locations and evidence for global lower tropospheric cooling following the eruptions of El Chichón and Pinatubo,” Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 19, no. 23, pp. 2313–2316, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  185. D. W. J. Thompson, J. M. Wallace, P. D. Jones, and J. J. Kennedy, “Identifying signatures of natural climate variability in time series of global-mean surface temperature: methodology and insights,” Journal of Climate, vol. 22, no. 22, pp. 6120–6141, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  186. K. Labitzke and M. P. McCormick, “Stratospheric temperature increases due to Pinatubo aerosols,” Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 207–210, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  187. M. G. Wiesner, A. Wetzel, S. G. Catane, E. L. Listanco, and H. T. Mirabueno, “Grain size, areal thickness distribution and controls on sedimentation of the 1991 Mount Pinatubo tephra layer in the South China Sea,” Bulletin of Volcanology, vol. 66, no. 3, pp. 226–242, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  188. S. Driscoll, A. Bozzo, L. J. Gray, A. Robock, and G. Stenchikov, “Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5) simulations of climate following volcanic eruptions,” Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 117, no. 17, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  189. J. Fierstein and W. Hildreth, “The plinian eruptions of 1912 at Novarupta, Katmai National Park, Alaska,” Bulletin of Volcanology, vol. 54, no. 8, pp. 646–684, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  190. L. Oman, A. Robock, G. Stenchikov, G. A. Schmidt, and R. Ruedy, “Climatic response to high-latitude volcanic eruptions,” Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 110, no. 13, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  191. J. Fierstein and W. Hildreth, “Preliminary volcano-hazard assessment for the Katmai volcanic cluster, Alaska,” Open-File Report 00-489, U.S. Geological Survey, Anchorage, Alaska, USA, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  192. V. M. Mantas, A. J. S. C. Pereira, and P. V. Morais, “Plumes of discolored water of volcanic origin and possible implications for algal communities. The case of the Home Reef eruption of 2006 (Tonga, Southwest Pacific Ocean),” Remote Sensing of Environment, vol. 115, no. 6, pp. 1341–1352, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  193. S. L. de Silva and G. A. Zielinski, “Global influence of the AD 1600 eruption of Huaynaputina, Peru,” Nature, vol. 393, no. 6684, pp. 455–458, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  194. J. M. Palais, S. Kirchner, and R. J. Delmas, “Identification of some global volcanic horizons by major element analysis of fine ash in Antarctic ice,” Annals of Glaciology, vol. 14, pp. 216–220, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  195. C. M. Meure, D. Etheridge, C. Trudinger et al., “Law Dome CO2, CH4 and N2O ice core records extended to 2000 years BP,” Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 33, no. 14, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  196. K. B. Briffa, P. D. Jones, F. H. Schweingruber, and T. J. Osborn, “Influence of volcanic eruptions on Northern Hemisphere summer temperature over the past 600 years,” Nature, vol. 393, no. 6684, pp. 450–455, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  197. F. Costa, B. Scaillet, and A. Gourgaud, “Massive atmospheric sulfur loading of the AD 1600 Huaynaputina eruption and implications for petrologic sulfur estimates,” Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 30, no. 2, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  198. L. M. Prueher and D. K. Rea, “Rapid onset of glacial conditions in the subarctic North Pacific region at 2.67 Ma: clues to causality,” Geology, vol. 26, no. 11, pp. 1027–1030, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  199. L. M. Prueher and D. K. Rea, “Volcanic triggering of late Pliocene glaciation: evidence from the flux of volcanic glass and ice-rafted debris to the North Pacific Ocean,” Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, vol. 173, no. 3-4, pp. 215–230, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  200. G. A. Zielinski, P. A. Mayewski, L. D. Meeker, S. Whitlow, and M. S. Twickler, “Potential atmospheric impact of the Toba mega-eruption ~71,000 years ago,” Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 23, no. 8, pp. 837–840, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  201. M. D. Petraglia, R. Korisettar, and J. N. Pal, “The Toba volcanic super-eruption of 74,000 years ago: climate change, environments, and evolving humans,” Quaternary International, vol. 258, pp. 1–4, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  202. M. R. Rampino and S. Self, “Climate-volcanism feedback and the Toba eruption of ~74,000 years ago,” Quaternary Research, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 269–280, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  203. R. C. Bay, N. E. Bramall, and P. B. Price, “Bipolar correlation of volcanism with millennial climate change,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 101, no. 17, pp. 6341–6345, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  204. B. R. Jicha, D. W. Scholl, and D. K. Rea, “Circum-Pacific arc flare-ups and global cooling near the Eocene-Oligocene boundary,” Geology, vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 303–306, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  205. J. C. Zachos, T. M. Quinn, and K. A. Salamy, “High-resolution (104 years) deep-sea foraminiferal stable isotope records of the Eocene-Oligocene climate transition,” Paleoceanography, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 251–266, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  206. K. A. Salamy and J. C. Zachos, “Latest Eocene—Early Oligocene climate change and Southern Ocean fertility: inferences from sediment accumulation and stable isotope data,” Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, vol. 145, no. 1–3, pp. 61–77, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  207. S. Bains, R. D. Norris, R. M. Corfield, and K. L. Faul, “Termination of global warmth at the Palaeocene/Eocene boundary through productivity feedback,” Nature, vol. 407, no. 6801, pp. 171–174, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  208. R. S. Barclay, J. C. McElwain, and B. B. Sageman, “Carbon sequestration activated by a volcanic CO2 pulse during Ocean Anoxic Event 2,” Nature Geoscience, vol. 3, pp. 205–208, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  209. I. Bailey, Q. Liu, G. E. A. Swann et al., “Iron fertilisation and biogeochemical cycles in the sub-Arctic northwest Pacific during the late Pliocene intensification of northern hemisphere glaciation,” Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol. 307, no. 3-4, pp. 253–265, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  210. A. Martínez-Garcia, A. Rosell-Melé, W. Geibert et al., “Links between iron supply, marine productivity, sea surface temperature, and CO2 over the last 1.1 Ma,” Paleoceanography, vol. 24, no. 1, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus