Figure 11: (a) Vertical profiles of potential temperature (k), wind speed (m/s), and potential vorticity (PVU = 10−6 m2 s−1 k kg−1) on a horizontal cutting line in the third domain of WRF model simulation in Figure 6 at (a) 09:00 LST and (b) 17:00 LST, October 27, 2003. Thick line, CBL, TIBL, G, and MABL on the bottom in (a) and (b) denote the top of convective boundary layer, thermal internal boundary layer, Gangneung city, and marine atmospheric boundary layer, respectively. Shade area near the surface in (b) is nocturnal surface inversion layer (NSIL) much shallower than TIBL in (a), where the dusts transported from the northern China combining with the dust particles floated from Gangneung city were merged into the ground surface, resulting in high PM concentrations at 17:00 LST at the city, similar to [9, 20, 31, 32].