Review Article

Integrated Monitoring and Assessment Framework of Regional Ecosystem under the Global Climate Change Background

Table 1

Comparative list of classical cases of integrated assessment.

CaseScaleEcosystem typeFramework and content

Millennium ecosystem assessmentGlobalEcosystems were divided into 13 types: Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub; temperate forest steppe and woodland; temperate broadleaf and mixed forests; tropical and subtropical dry broadleaf forests; flooded grasslands and savannas; tropical and subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands; tropical and subtropical coniferous forests; deserts; montane grasslands and shrublands; tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests; temperate coniferous forests; boreal forests; tundra.Assessment focused on the linkages between ecosystems and human well-being and, in particular, on ecosystem services, examined the ecosystem changes affecting human wellbeing, and discovered the critical factors causing ecosystem changes, and put forward the measures managing ecosystems sustainably.

National ecosystem assessment in the USNationalEcosystems were divided into six types: farmland, forests, grassland and shrublands, freshwater, urban, and coastal and marine. Assessment focused on the distribution and pattern, chemical and physical characteristics, biological components, substance supply, and ecosystem service.

National ecosystem assessment in the UKNationalEcosystems were divided into eight types: forests, coastal, marine, mountain-moorland-heath, seminatural grasslands, enclosed farmland, open freshwater waters, urban, and wetlands-floodplains.Assessment focused on the ecosystem service, material supply, driving force of ecosystem change, and human wellbeing.

National ecosystem assessment in ChinaNationalEcosystems were divided into eight types: forests, shrublands, wetlands, grassland, farmland, urban, desert, glacier and bare land. Assessment focused on the ecosystem distribution and pattern, service, quality, problems, driving factors.