Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Advances in Meteorology
Volume 2015, Article ID 352360, 12 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/352360
Research Article

A Comparison of Two Methods on the Climatic Effects of Urbanization in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Metropolitan Area

1Key Laboratory of Computational Geodynamics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
2College of Earth Science, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
3State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China

Received 28 September 2014; Revised 25 March 2015; Accepted 8 April 2015

Academic Editor: Charles Jones

Copyright © 2015 Mingna Wang and Xiaodong Yan. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis: Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 2007.
  2. T. C. Peterson, K. P. Gallo, J. Lawrimore, T. W. Owen, A. Huang, and D. A. McKittrick, “Global rural temperature trends,” Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 329–332, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. T. C. Peterson, “Assessment of urban versus rural in situ surface temperatures in the contiguous United States: no difference found,” Journal of Climate, vol. 16, no. 18, pp. 2941–2959, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. P. D. Jones, P. Y. Groisman, M. Coughlan, N. Plummer, W.-C. Wang, and T. R. Karl, “Assessment of urbanization effects in time series of surface air temperature over land,” Nature, vol. 347, no. 6289, pp. 169–172, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. Q. Li, H. Zhang, X. Liu, and J. Huang, “Urban heat island effect on annual mean temperature during the last 50 years in China,” Theoretical and Applied Climatology, vol. 79, no. 3-4, pp. 165–174, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  6. Q. Li, W. Li, P. Si et al., “Assessment of surface air warming in northeast China, with emphasis on the impacts of urbanization,” Theoretical and Applied Climatology, vol. 99, no. 3-4, pp. 469–478, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  7. R. A. Pielke Sr., “Land use and climate change,” Science, vol. 310, no. 5754, pp. 1625–1626, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. T. R. Oke, “City size and the urban heat island,” Atmospheric Environment (1967), vol. 7, no. 8, pp. 769–779, 1973. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  9. W. C. Wang, Z. Zeng, and T. R. Karl, “Urban heat islands in China,” Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 17, no. 13, pp. 2377–2380, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  10. G. Y. Ren, Y. Q. Zhou, Z. Y. Chu et al., “Urbanization effects on observed surface air temperature trends in North China,” Journal of Climate, vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 1333–1348, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. E. Kalnay and M. Cai, “Impact of urbanization and land-use change on climate,” Nature, vol. 423, no. 6939, pp. 528–531, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. Y. K. Lim, M. Cai, E. Kalnay, and L. M. Zhou, “Observational evidence of sensitivity of surface climate changes to land types and urbanization,” Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 32, no. 22, Article ID L22712, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  13. S. Fall, D. Niyogi, A. Gluhovsky, R. A. Pielke, E. Kalnay, and G. Rochon, “Impacts of land use land cover on temperature trends over the continental United States: assessment using the North American Regional Reanalysis,” International Journal of Climatology, vol. 30, no. 13, pp. 1980–1993, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. Y. Hu, W. Dong, and Y. He, “Impact of land surface forcings on mean and extreme temperature in eastern China,” Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, vol. 115, no. D19, Article ID D19117, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  15. M. Liu and H. Tian, “China's land cover and land use change from 1700 to 2005: estimations from high-resolution satellite data and historical archives,” Global Biogeochemical Cycles, vol. 24, no. 3, Article ID GB3003, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. L. Chen, W. Zhu, X. Zhou, and Z. Zhou, “Characteristics of the heat island effect in Shanghai and its possible mechanism,” Advances in Atmospheric Sciences, vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 991–1001, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. M. Sachweh and P. Koepke, “Radiation fog and urban climate,” Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 22, no. 9, pp. 1073–1076, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. Z. Li and Z. Yan, “Application of multiple analysis of series for homogenization to Beijing daily temperature series (1960–2006),” Advances in Atmospheric Sciences, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 777–787, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  19. Z. Yan, Z. Li, Q. Li, and P. Jones, “Effects of site change and urbanisation in the Beijing temperature series 1977–2006,” International Journal of Climatology, vol. 30, no. 8, pp. 1226–1234, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. G. Y. Ren, Z. Y. Chu, Z. H. Chen, and Y. Y. Ren, “Implications of temporal change in urban heat island intensity observed at Beijing and Wuhan stations,” Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 34, no. 5, Article ID L05711, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. Z. Li and Z. Yan, “Homogenized daily mean/maximum/minimum temperature series for China from 1960–2008,” Atmospheric and Oceanic Science Letters, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 237–243, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  22. E. Kalnay, M. Kanamitsu, R. Kistler et al., “The NCEP/NCAR 40-year reanalysis project,” Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, vol. 77, no. 3, pp. 437–471, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. M. Kanamitsu, W. Ebisuzaki, J. Woollen et al., “NCEP-DOE AMIP-II reanalysis (R-2),” Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, vol. 83, no. 11, pp. 1631–1559, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. A. Simmons, S. Uppala, D. Dee, and S. Kobayashi, “ERA-interim: new ECMWF reanalysis products from 1989 onwards,” ECMWF Newsletter, vol. 110, pp. 25–35, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  25. K. E. Trenberth, “Rural land-use change and climate,” Nature, vol. 427, no. 6971, p. 213, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. L. Zhou, R. E. Dickinson, Y. Tian et al., “Evidence for a significant urbanization effect on climate in China,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 101, no. 26, pp. 9540–9544, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. O. W. Frauenfeld, T. Zhang, and M. C. Serreze, “Climate change and variability using European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts reanalysis (ERA-40) temperatures on the Tibetan Plateau,” Journal of Geophysical Research D: Atmospheres, vol. 110, no. 2, Article ID D02101, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. D. R. Easterling, B. Horton, P. D. Jones et al., “Maximum and minimum temperature trends for the globe,” Science, vol. 277, no. 5324, pp. 364–367, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. M. G. Kendall, Rank Correlation Methods, Charles Griffin and Company, London, UK, 1948.
  30. H. B. Mann, “Nonparametric tests against trend,” Econometrica, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 245–259, 1945. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet
  31. Y. Ezber, O. L. Sen, T. Kindap, and M. Karaca, “Climatic effects of urbanization in Istanbul: a statistical and modeling analysis,” International Journal of Climatology, vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 667–679, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. M. Tayanç, M. Karaca, and O. Yenigün, “Annual and seasonal air temperature trend patterns of climate change and urbanization effects in relation to air pollutants in Turkey,” Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 102, no. D2, pp. 1909–1919, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  33. A. J. Arnfield, “Two decades of urban climate research: a review of turbulence, exchanges of energy and water, and the urban heat island,” International Journal of Climatology, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 1–26, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. G. T. Johnson, T. R. Oke, T. J. Lyons, D. G. Steyn, I. D. Watson, and J. A. Voogt, “Simulation of surface urban heat islands under ‘IDEAL’ conditions at night part 1: theory and tests against field data,” Boundary-Layer Meteorology, vol. 56, no. 3, pp. 275–294, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. T. R. Oke, G. T. Johnson, D. G. Steyn, and I. D. Watson, “Simulation of surface urban heat islands under ‘ideal’ conditions at night part 2: diagnosis of causation,” Boundary-Layer Meteorology, vol. 56, no. 4, pp. 339–358, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. X. Yang, Y. Hou, and B. Chen, “Observed surface warming induced by urbanization in east China,” Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, vol. 116, no. D14, Article ID D14113, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  37. Y. Du, Z. Xie, Y. Zeng, Y. Shi, and J. Wu, “Impact of urban expansion on regional temperature change in the Yangtze River Delta,” Journal of Geographical Sciences, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 387–398, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. P. Jones, D. Lister, and Q. Li, “Urbanization effects in large-scale temperature records, with an emphasis on China,” Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 113, Article ID D16122, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  39. Z. Jingyong, D. Wenjie, W. Lingyun, W. Jiangfeng, C. Peiyan, and D. K. Lee, “Impact of land use changes on surface warming in China,” Advances in Atmospheric Sciences, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 343–348, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  40. X. C. Yang, Y. L. Zhang, M. J. Ding, L. S. Liu, Z. F. Wang, and D. W. Gao, “Observational evidence of the impact of vegetation cover on surface air temperature change in China,” Chinese Journal of Geophysics, vol. 53, no. 4, pp. 261–269, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. A. J. Simmons, P. D. Jones, V. da Costa Bechtold et al., “Comparison of trends and low-frequency variability in CRU, ERA-40, and NCEP/NCAR analyses of surface air temperature,” Journal of Geophysical Research D: Atmospheres, vol. 109, no. 24, pp. 1–18, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. G. Huang, “The assessment and difference of the interdecadal variations of climate change in Northern part of China with the NCEP-NCAR and ERA-40 reanalysis data,” Climatic and Environmental Research, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 310–320, 2006 (Chinese). View at Google Scholar
  43. T. B. Zhao and C. B. Fu, “Preliminary comparison and analysis between ERA-40, NCEP-2 reanalysis and observations over China,” Climatic and Environmental Research, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 14–32, 2006 (Chinese). View at Google Scholar
  44. J. Fang, S. Piao, J. He, and W. Ma, “Increasing terrestrial vegetation activity in China, 1982–1999,” Science in China Series C: Life Sciences, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 229–240, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  45. S. J. Jeong, C. H. Ho, K. Y. Kim, and J. H. Jeong, “Reduction of spring warming over East Asia associated with vegetation feedback,” Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 36, no. 18, Article ID L18705, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  46. R. Mahmood, R. A. Pielke Sr., K. G. Hubbard et al., “Impacts of land use/land cover change on climate and future research priorities,” Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, vol. 91, no. 1, pp. 37–46, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus