Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Advances in Meteorology
Volume 2015, Article ID 412658, 15 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/412658
Research Article

Quality of the Governing Temperature Variables in WRF in relation to Simulation of Primary Biological Aerosols

1National Pollen and Aerobiology Research Unit, Institute of Science and the Environment, University of Worcester, Henwick Grove, Worcester WR2 6AJ, UK
2Department of Climatology and Atmosphere Protection, University of Wrocław, Ulica Kosiby 8, 51-621 Wrocław, Poland

Received 9 April 2015; Revised 23 June 2015; Accepted 16 August 2015

Academic Editor: Enrico Ferrero

Copyright © 2015 C. A. Skjøth et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. M. Vieno, A. J. Dore, D. S. Stevenson et al., “Modelling surface ozone during the 2003 heat-wave in the UK,” Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol. 10, no. 16, pp. 7963–7978, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. P. Tuccella, G. Curci, G. Visconti, B. Bessagnet, L. Menut, and R. J. Park, “Modeling of gas and aerosol with WRF/Chem over Europe: evaluation and sensitivity study,” Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, vol. 117, no. 3, Article ID D03303, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. M. Ritter, M. D. Müller, M.-Y. Tsai, and E. Parlow, “Air pollution modeling over very complex terrain: an evaluation of WRF-Chem over Switzerland for two 1-year periods,” Atmospheric Research, vol. 132-133, pp. 209–222, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. J. Liao, T. Wang, X. Wang et al., “Impacts of different urban canopy schemes in WRF/Chem on regional climate and air quality in Yangtze River Delta, China,” Atmospheric Research, vol. 145-146, pp. 226–243, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. J. Done, C. A. Davis, and M. Weisman, “The next generation of NWP: explicit forecasts of convection using the weather research and forecasting (WRF) model,” Atmospheric Science Letters, vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 110–117, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. M. Kryza, M. Werner, K. Wałaszek, and A. J. Dore, “Application and evaluation of the WRF model for high-resolution forecasting of rainfall—a case study of SW Poland,” Meteorologische Zeitschrift, vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 595–601, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. S. Davolio, D. Mastrangelo, M. M. Miglietta, O. Drofa, A. Buzzi, and P. Malguzzi, “High resolution simulations of a flash flood near Venice,” Natural Hazards and Earth System Science, vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 1671–1678, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. T. Niedzielski, B. Mizinski, M. Kryza, and M. Witek, “HydroProg: a system for hydraulic forecasting in real time, based on multimodelling approach,” in Meteorology, Hydrology and Water Management Research and Operational Applications, vol. 2, pp. 65–72, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  9. T. L. Otte, G. Pouliot, J. E. Pleim et al., “Linking the Eta Model with the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system to build a national air quality forecasting system,” Weather and Forecasting, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 367–384, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. J. M. Baldasano, M. T. Pay, O. Jorba, S. Gassó, and P. Jiménez-Guerrero, “An annual assessment of air quality with the CALIOPE modeling system over Spain,” Science of the Total Environment, vol. 409, no. 11, pp. 2163–2178, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. Y. Zhang, Y. Chen, G. Sarwar, and K. Schere, “Impact of gas-phase mechanisms on Weather Research Forecasting Model with Chemistry (WRF/Chem) predictions: mechanism implementation and comparative evaluation,” Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, vol. 117, no. 1, Article ID D01301, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. M. Stéfanon, P. Drobinski, F. D'Andrea, and N. de Noblet-Ducoudré, “Effects of interactive vegetation phenology on the 2003 summer heat waves,” Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, vol. 117, Article ID D24103, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. M. Falk, R. D. Pyles, S. L. Ustin et al., “Evaluated crop evapotranspiration over a region of irrigated orchards with the improved ACASA-WRF model,” Journal of Hydrometeorology, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 744–758, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. K. Zink, H. Vogel, B. Vogel, D. Magyar, and C. Kottmeier, “Modeling the dispersion of Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. pollen with the model system COSMO-ART,” International Journal of Biometeorology, vol. 56, no. 4, pp. 669–680, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. J. Kukkonen, T. Olsson, D. M. Schultz et al., “A review of operational, regional-scale, chemical weather forecasting models in Europe,” Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 1–87, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. R. Zhang, T. Duhl, M. T. Salam et al., “Development of a regional-scale pollen emission and transport modeling framework for investigating the impact of climate change on allergic airway disease,” Biogeosciences, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 1461–1478, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. D. Kiewra, M. Kryza, and M. Szymanowski, “Influence of selected meteorological variables on the questing activity of Ixodes ricinus ticks in Lower Silesia, SW Poland,” Journal of Vector Ecology, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 138–145, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. C. A. Skjøth, O. Hertel, and T. Ellermann, “Use of the ACDEP trajectory model in the Danish nation-wide Background Monitoring Programme,” Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, vol. 27, no. 35, pp. 1469–1477, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. S. Gyldenkærne, C. A. Skjøth, O. Hertel, and T. Ellermann, “A dynamical ammonia emission parameterization for use in air pollution models,” Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, vol. 110, no. 7, Article ID D07108, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. M. A. Hernández-Ceballos, C. A. Skjøth, H. García-Mozo, J. P. Bolívar, and C. Galán, “Improvement in the accuracy of back trajectories using WRF to identify pollen sources in southern Iberian Peninsula,” International Journal of Biometeorology, vol. 58, no. 10, pp. 2031–2043, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. W. C. Skamarock and M. L. Weisman, “The impact of positive-definite moisture transport on NWP precipitation forecasts,” Monthly Weather Review, vol. 137, no. 1, pp. 488–494, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. G. Grell and A. Baklanov, “Integrated modeling for forecasting weather and air quality: a call for fully coupled approaches,” Atmospheric Environment, vol. 45, no. 38, pp. 6845–6851, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. A. Baklanov, K. Schlünzen, P. Suppan et al., “Online coupled regional meteorology chemistry models in Europe: current status and prospects,” Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 317–398, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. Y. Zhang, M. Bocquet, V. Mallet, C. Seigneur, and A. Baklanov, “Real-time air quality forecasting, part I: history, techniques, and current status,” Atmospheric Environment, vol. 60, pp. 632–655, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. G. Grell, S. R. Freitas, M. Stuefer, and J. Fast, “Inclusion of biomass burning in WRF-Chem: impact of wildfires on weather forecasts,” Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol. 11, no. 11, pp. 5289–5303, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. C. Zhao, X. Liu, L. R. Leung et al., “The spatial distribution of mineral dust and its shortwave radiative forcing over North Africa: modeling sensitivities to dust emissions and aerosol size treatments,” Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol. 10, no. 18, pp. 8821–8838, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. M. Stuefer, S. R. Freitas, G. Grell et al., “Inclusion of ash and SO2 emissions from volcanic eruptions in WRF-Chem: development and some applications,” Geoscientific Model Development, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 457–468, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  28. S. Archer-Nicholls, D. Lowe, E. Darbyshire et al., “Characterising Brazilian biomass burning emissions using WRF-Chem with MOSAIC sectional aerosol,” Geoscientific Model Development, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 549–577, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  29. G. C. Cuchiara, X. Li, J. Carvalho, and B. Rappenglück, “Intercomparison of planetary boundary layer parameterization and its impacts on surface ozone concentration in the WRF/Chem model for a case study in houston/texas,” Atmospheric Environment, vol. 96, pp. 175–185, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. K. Wang, Y. Zhang, K. Yahya, S.-Y. Wu, and G. Grell, “Implementation and initial application of new chemistry-aerosol options in WRF/Chem for simulating secondary organic aerosols and aerosol indirect effects for regional air quality,” Atmospheric Environment, vol. 115, pp. 716–732, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. A. Balzarini, G. Pirovano, L. Honzak et al., “WRF-Chem model sensitivity to chemical mechanisms choice in reconstructing aerosol optical properties,” Atmospheric Environment, vol. 115, pp. 604–619, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. S. Archer-Nicholls, D. Lowe, S. Utembe et al., “Gaseous chemistry and aerosol mechanism developments for version 3.5.1 of the online regional model, WRF-Chem,” Geoscientific Model Development, vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 2557–2579, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. D. Brunner, N. Savage, O. Jorba et al., “Comparative analysis of meteorological performance of coupled chemistry-meteorology models in the context of AQMEII phase 2,” Atmospheric Environment, vol. 115, pp. 470–498, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. L. K. Berg, M. Shrivastava, R. C. Easter et al., “A new WRF-Chem treatment for studying regional-scale impacts of cloud processes on aerosol and trace gases in parameterized cumuli,” Geoscientific Model Development, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 409–429, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  35. Y. Zhang, X.-Y. Wen, and C. J. Jang, “Simulating chemistry-aerosol-cloud-radiation-climate feedbacks over the continental U.S. using the online-coupled Weather Research Forecasting Model with chemistry (WRF/Chem),” Atmospheric Environment, vol. 44, no. 29, pp. 3568–3582, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. A. De Meij, E. Bossioli, C. Penard, J. F. Vinuesa, and I. Price, “The effect of SRTM and Corine Land Cover data on calculated gas and PM10 concentrations in WRF-Chem,” Atmospheric Environment, vol. 101, pp. 177–193, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. F. J. Santos-Alamillos, D. Pozo-Vázquez, J. A. Ruiz-Arias, and J. Tovar-Pescador, “Influence of land-use misrepresentation on the accuracy of WRF wind estimates: evaluation of GLCC and CORINE land-use maps in southern Spain,” Atmospheric Research, vol. 157, pp. 17–28, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. K. Wałaszek, M. Kryza, and M. Werner, “Evaluation of the WRF meteorological model results during a high ozone episode in SW Poland—the role of model initial conditions,” International Journal of Environment and Pollution, vol. 54, no. 2–4, pp. 193–202, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. P. W. Webley, T. Steensen, M. Stuefer, G. Grell, S. Freitas, and M. Pavolonis, “Analyzing the Eyjafjallajökull 2010 eruption using satellite remote sensing, lidar and WRF-Chem dispersion and tracking model,” Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, vol. 117, Article ID D00U26, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  40. D. C. Oderbolz, S. Aksoyoglu, J. Keller et al., “A comprehensive emission inventory of biogenic volatile organic compounds in Europe: improved seasonality and land-cover,” Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 1689–1712, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  41. M. A. Sutton, S. Reis, S. N. Riddick et al., “Towards a climate-dependent paradigm of ammonia emission and deposition,” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, vol. 368, no. 1621, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. A. Arneth, S. P. Harrison, S. Zaehle et al., “Terrestrial biogeochemical feedbacks in the climate system,” Nature Geoscience, vol. 3, no. 8, pp. 525–532, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. B. C. Christner, C. E. Morris, C. M. Foreman, R. Cai, and D. C. Sands, “Ubiquity of biological ice nucleators in snowfall,” Science, vol. 319, no. 5867, p. 1214, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. A. M. Jones and R. M. Harrison, “The effects of meteorological factors on atmospheric bioaerosol concentrations—a review,” Science of the Total Environment, vol. 326, no. 1–3, pp. 151–180, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. Å. Dahl, C. Galán, L. Hajkova et al., “The onset, course and intensity of the pollen season,” in Allergenic Pollen, M. Sofiev and K. C. Bergmann, Eds., pp. 29–70, Springer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  46. T. Hickler, K. Vohland, J. Feehan et al., “Projecting the future distribution of European potential natural vegetation zones with a generalized, tree species-based dynamic vegetation model,” Global Ecology and Biogeography, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 50–63, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. C. A. Skjøth, B. Sikoparija, S. Jäger, and EAN-Network, “Pollen sources,” in Allergenic Pollen, M. Sofiev and K. C. Bergmann, Eds., pp. 9–27, Springer Netherlands, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  48. J. F. White and D. I. Bemstein, “Key pollen allergens in North America,” Annals of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology, vol. 91, no. 5, pp. 425–492, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. C. Calfapietra, S. Fares, F. Manes, A. Morani, G. Sgrigna, and F. Loreto, “Role of Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (BVOC) emitted by urban trees on ozone concentration in cities: a review,” Environmental Pollution, vol. 183, pp. 71–80, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. L. A. Darrow, J. Hess, C. A. Rogers, P. E. Tolbert, M. Klein, and S. E. Sarnat, “Ambient pollen concentrations and emergency department visits for asthma and wheeze,” Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, vol. 130, no. 3, pp. 630–638, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. S. P. Jariwala, S. Kurada, H. Moday et al., “Association between tree pollen counts and asthma ED visits in a high-density urban center,” Journal of Asthma, vol. 48, no. 5, pp. 442–448, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. N. Khwarahm, J. Dash, P. M. Atkinson et al., “Exploring the spatio-temporal relationship between two key aeroallergens and meteorological variables in the United Kingdom,” International Journal of Biometeorology, vol. 58, no. 4, pp. 529–545, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. M. Sofiev, J. Belmonte, R. Gehrig et al., “Airborne pollen transport,” in Allergenic Pollen, M. Sofiev and K. C. Bergmann, Eds., pp. 127–159, Springer, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  54. R. M. Newnham, T. H. Sparks, C. A. Skjøth, K. Head, B. Adams-Groom, and M. Smith, “Pollen season and climate: is the timing of birch pollen release in the UK approaching its limit?” International Journal of Biometeorology, vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 391–400, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. T. Linkosalo, H. Ranta, A. Oksanen et al., “A double-threshold temperature sum model for predicting the flowering duration and relative intensity of Betula pendula and B. pubescens,” Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, vol. 150, no. 12, pp. 1579–1584, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. A. Pauling, R. Gehrig, and B. Clot, “Toward optimized temperature sum parameterizations for forecasting the start of the pollen season,” Aerobiologia, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 45–57, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. E. J. Cooter, J. O. Bash, V. Benson, and L. Ran, “Linking agricultural crop management and air quality models for regional to national-scale nitrogen assessments,” Biogeosciences, vol. 9, no. 10, pp. 4023–4035, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. C. A. Skjøth, J. Sommer, L. Frederiksen, and U. Gosewinkel Karlson, “Crop harvest in Denmark and Central Europe contributes to the local load of airborne Alternaria spore concentrations in Copenhagen,” Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol. 12, no. 22, pp. 11107–11123, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. E.-C. Oerke and H.-W. Dehne, “Safeguarding production-losses in major crops and the role of crop protection,” Crop Protection, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 275–285, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. M. Pautasso, G. Aas, V. Queloz, and O. Holdenrieder, “European ash (Fraxinus excelsior) dieback—a conservation biology challenge,” Biological Conservation, vol. 158, pp. 37–49, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. A. A. Appiah, P. Jennings, and J. A. Turner, “Phytophthora ramorum: one pathogen and many diseases, an emerging threat to forest ecosystems and ornamental plant life,” Mycologist, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 145–150, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. A. W. Frankland and P. H. Gregory, “Allergenic and agricultural implications of airborne ascospore concentrations from a fungus, Didymella exitialis,” Nature, vol. 245, no. 5424, pp. 336–337, 1973. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. W. E. Horner, A. Helbling, and S. B. Lehrer, “Basidiomycete allergens: comparison of three Ganoderma species,” Allergy, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 110–116, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. T. B. Pulimood, J. M. Corden, C. Bryden, L. Sharples, and S. M. Nasser, “Epidemic asthma and the role of the fungal mold Alternaria alternata,” Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, vol. 120, no. 3, pp. 610–617, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. V. Timmermann, I. Børja, A. M. Hietala, T. Kirisits, and H. Solheim, “Ash dieback: pathogen spread and diurnal patterns of ascospore dispersal, with special emphasis on Norway,” EPPO Bulletin, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 14–20, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. T. Hauptman, B. Piškur, M. de Groot, N. Ogris, M. Ferlan, and D. Jurc, “Temperature effect on Chalara fraxinea: heat treatment of saplings as a possible disease control method,” Forest Pathology, vol. 43, no. 5, pp. 360–370, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. D. J. Lovell, S. J. Powers, S. J. Welham, and S. R. Parker, “A perspective on the measurement of time in plant disease epidemiology,” Plant Pathology, vol. 53, no. 6, pp. 705–712, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. R. D. Magarey, T. B. Sutton, and C. L. Thayer, “A simple generic infection model for foliar fungal plant pathogens,” Phytopathology, vol. 95, no. 1, pp. 92–100, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. G. A. Grell, S. E. Peckham, R. Schmitz et al., “Fully coupled ‘online’ chemistry within the WRF model,” Atmospheric Environment, vol. 39, no. 37, pp. 6957–6975, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. M. Werner, M. Kryza, C. Geels, T. Ellermann, and C. A. Skjøth, “Spatial, temporal and vertical distribution of ammonia concentrations over Europe— comparing a static and dynamic approach with WRF-Chem,” Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions, vol. 15, no. 16, pp. 22935–22973, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  71. E. J. Mlawer, S. J. Taubman, P. D. Brown, M. J. Iacono, and S. A. Clough, “Radiative transfer for inhomogeneous atmospheres: RRTM, a validated correlated-k model for the longwave,” Journal of Geophysical Research D: Atmospheres, vol. 102, no. 14, pp. 16663–16682, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. J. Dudhia, “Numerical study of convection observed during the winter monsoon experiment using a mesoscale two-dimensional model,” Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, vol. 46, no. 20, pp. 3077–3107, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. M. Nakanishi and H. Niino, “Development of an improved turbulence closure model for the atmospheric boundary layer,” Journal of the Meteorological Society of Japan, vol. 87, no. 5, pp. 895–912, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. F. Chen and J. Dudhia, “Coupling an advanced land surface-hydrology model with the Penn State-NCAR MM5 modeling system. Part I: model implementation and sensitivity,” Monthly Weather Review, vol. 129, no. 4, pp. 569–585, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. J. S. Kain and J. Kain, “The Kain—fritsch convective parameterization: an update,” Journal of Applied Meteorology, vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 170–181, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. L. Anselin, “Local indicators of spatial association—LISA,” Geographical Analysis, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 93–115, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. S. Yu, R. Mathur, J. Pleim et al., “Aerosol indirect effect on the grid-scale clouds in the two-way coupled WRF—CMAQ: model description, development, evaluation and regional analysis,” Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol. 14, no. 20, pp. 11247–11285, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. P. M. M. Soares, R. M. Cardoso, P. M. A. Miranda, J. de Medeiros, M. Belo-Pereira, and F. Espirito-Santo, “WRF high resolution dynamical downscaling of ERA-Interim for Portugal,” Climate Dynamics, vol. 39, no. 9-10, pp. 2497–2522, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. T. Linkosalo, “Mutual regularity of spring phenology of some boreal tree species: predicting with other species and phenological models,” Canadian Journal of Forest Research, vol. 30, no. 5, pp. 667–673, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. M. Kryza, K. Walaszek, M. Szymanowski, M. Werner, and A. J. Dore, “High resolution dynamical downscaling of ERA-Interim using the WRF regional climate model. Part 1: model configuration and statistical evaluation for the 1981–2010 period,” Pure and Applied Geophysics, In press.
  81. E. Katragkou, M. García-Díez, R. Vautard et al., “Regional climate hindcast simulations within EURO-CORDEX: evaluation of a WRF multi-physics ensemble,” Geoscientific Model Development, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 603–618, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  82. P. A. Mooney, F. J. Mulligan, and R. Fealy, “Evaluation of the sensitivity of the weather research and forecasting model to parameterization schemes for regional climates of Europe over the period 1990–95,” Journal of Climate, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 1002–1017, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. P. M. M. Soares, R. M. Cardoso, P. M. A. Miranda, J. de Medeiros, M. Belo-Pereira, and F. Espirito-Santo, “WRF high resolution dynamical downscaling of ERA-interim for Portugal,” Climate Dynamics, vol. 39, no. 9-10, pp. 2497–2522, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. U. Heikkilä, A. Sandvik, and A. Sorteberg, “Dynamical downscaling of ERA-40 in complex terrain using the WRF regional climate model,” Climate Dynamics, vol. 37, no. 7-8, pp. 1551–1564, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. S. Galmarini and S. T. Rao, “The AQMEII two-continent regional air quality model evaluation study: fueling ideas with unprecedented data,” Atmospheric Environment, vol. 45, no. 14, p. 2464, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  86. P. A. Makar, W. Gong, J. Milbrandt et al., “Feedbacks between air pollution and weather, part 1: effects on weather,” Atmospheric Environment, vol. 115, pp. 442–469, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  87. S.-Y. Hong, Y. Noh, and J. Dudhia, “A new vertical diffusion package with an explicit treatment of entrainment processes,” Monthly Weather Review, vol. 134, no. 9, pp. 2318–2341, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. M. C. Coniglio, J. Correia Jr., P. T. Marsh, and F. Kong, “Verification of convection-allowing WRF model forecasts of the planetary boundary layer using sounding observations,” Weather and Forecasting, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 842–862, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. C. A. Skjøth, P. V. Ørby, T. Becker et al., “Identifying urban sources as cause of elevated grass pollen concentrations using GIS and remote sensing,” Biogeosciences, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 541–554, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  90. M. Sadyś, C. A. Skjøth, and R. Kennedy, “Back-trajectories show export of airborne fungal spores (Ganoderma sp.) from forests to agricultural and urban areas in England,” Atmospheric Environment, vol. 84, pp. 88–99, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. S. Fernández-Rodríguez, C. A. Skjøth, R. Tormo-Molina et al., “Identification of potential sources of airborne Olea pollen in the Southwest Iberian Peninsula,” International Journal of Biometeorology, vol. 58, no. 3, pp. 337–348, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. I. Orlanski, “A rational subdivision of scales for atmospheric processes,” Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, vol. 56, no. 5, pp. 527–530, 1975. View at Google Scholar
  93. M. Smith, C. A. Skjøth, D. Myszkowska et al., “Long-range transport of Ambrosia pollen to Poland,” Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, vol. 148, no. 10, pp. 1402–1411, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. I. D. Campbell, K. McDonald, M. D. Flannigan, and J. Kringayark, “Long-distance transport of pollen into the arctic,” Nature, vol. 399, no. 6731, pp. 29–30, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  95. A. Dosio and P. Paruolo, “Bias correction of the ENSEMBLES high-resolution climate change projections for use by impact models: evaluation on the present climate,” Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, vol. 116, no. 16, Article ID D16106, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  96. C. Ziello, N. Estrella, M. Kostova, E. Koch, and A. Menzel, “Influence of altitude on phenology of selected plant species in the Alpine region (1971–2000),” Climate Research, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 227–234, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  97. R. Baghi, D. Helmig, A. Guenther, T. Duhl, and R. Daly, “Contribution of flowering trees to urban atmospheric biogenic volatile organic compound emissions,” Biogeosciences, vol. 9, no. 10, pp. 3777–3785, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  98. N. Helbig, B. Vogel, H. Vogel, and F. Fiedler, “Numerical modelling of pollen dispersion on the regional scale,” Aerobiologia, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 3–19, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  99. K. Zink, A. Pauling, M. W. Rotach, H. Vogel, P. Kaufmann, and B. Clot, “EMPOL 1.0: a new parameterization of pollen emission in numerical weather prediction models,” Geoscientific Model Development, vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 1961–1975, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  100. D. E. Bianchi, D. J. Schwemmin, and W. H. Wagner Jr., “Pollen release in the common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia),” Botanical Gazette, vol. 120, no. 4, pp. 235–243, 1959. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  101. C. S. Reddi and N. S. Reddi, “Relation of pollen release to pollen concentrations in air,” Grana, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 109–113, 1985. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  102. M. Sofiev, U. Berger, M. Prank et al., “MACC regional multi-model ensemble simulations of birch pollen dispersion in Europe,” Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 8243–8281, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  103. C. A. Skjøth and C. Geels, “The effect of climate and climate change on ammonia emissions in Europe,” Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 117–128, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  104. D.-H. Kim, M. R. Doyle, S. Sung, and R. M. Amasino, “Vernalization: winter and the timing of flowering in plants,” Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology, vol. 25, pp. 277–299, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  105. C. A. Skjøth, C. Geels, H. Berge et al., “Spatial and temporal variations in ammonia emissions—a freely accessible model code for Europe,” Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol. 11, no. 11, pp. 5221–5236, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  106. J. Brandt, J. D. Silver, L. M. Frohn et al., “An integrated model study for Europe and North America using the Danish Eulerian Hemispheric Model with focus on intercontinental transport of air pollution,” Atmospheric Environment, vol. 53, pp. 156–176, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  107. C. Geels, H. V. Andersen, C. A. Skjøth et al., “Improved modelling of atmospheric ammonia over Denmark using the coupled modelling system DAMOS,” Biogeosciences, vol. 9, no. 7, pp. 2625–2647, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  108. F. Paulot, D. J. Jacob, R. W. Pinder, J. O. Bash, K. Travis, and D. K. Henze, “Ammonia emissions in the United States, European Union, and China derived by high-resolution inversion of ammonium wet deposition data: interpretation with a new agricultural emissions inventory (MASAGE_NH3),” Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, vol. 119, no. 7, pp. 4343–4364, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  109. C. A. Skjøth, Integrating measurements, phenological models and atmospheric models in aerobiology—creating new concepts within aerobiological integrated monitoring and forecasting [Ph.D. thesis], Faculty of Science, Copenhagen University, København, Denmark, 2009.
  110. C. A. Skjøth, P. Baker, M. Sadyś, and B. Adams-Groom, “Pollen from alder (Alnus sp.), birch (Betula sp.) and oak (Quercus sp.) in the UK originate from small woodlands,” Urban Climate, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  111. G. N. Agrios, Plant Pathology, Academic Press, San Diego, Calif, USA, 4th edition, 1997.