Advances in Meteorology / 2016 / Article / Tab 2

Review Article

1600 AD Huaynaputina Eruption (Peru), Abrupt Cooling, and Epidemics in China and Korea

Table 2

Historical records of the abrupt cooling and epidemics in northern China in 1601 AD.

County, provinceDescription1Source

Xincai, HenanSince the 9th day of the 1st month (of the 29th year of the Wanli Reign Period, February 11, 1601 AD), it snowed heavily for 40 days, and the melted snow destroyed the wheat. The following epidemic killed innumerable people, and all the farmlands were deserted.Hongxian Tan and Minfu Lü, Gazetteer of the Xincai County (Xincai xian zhi) (1691), Vol. 7.

Dingxiang, ShanxiIt did not rain in summer and autumn. There was an epidemic that killed numerous people. Even family members and relatives did not dare to have intimate physical contact with each other. There was a drought and a frost disaster that caused crop failure, and prices of crops rose to extraordinary levels.Shijiong Wang and Hanyuan Niu, Gazetteer of the Dingxiang County (Dingxiang xian zhi) (1712), Vol. 7.

Lishi, ShanxiA frost completely destroyed the crops (29th year of the Wanli Reign Period, 1601 AD). A great epidemic came in the spring of the 30th year of the Wanli Reign Period (1602 AD) and killed a great number of people.Daoyi Wang, Gazetteer of the Fenzhou Prefecture (Fenzhou fu zhi) (1611), Vol. 16.

Huai’an, HebeiThere was a snow in the summer.Dakun Yang and Jizeng Qian, A Gazetteer of the Huai’an County (Huai’an xian zhi) (1741), Vol. 22.

Xuanhua, HebeiThere was a frost in the summer.Tan Chen, A Gazetteer of the Xuanhua County (Xuanhua xian zhi) (1711), Vol. 5.

Chicheng, HebeiThere was a frost in the summer.Tun Zhang, A Gazetteer of the Longmen County (Longmen xian zhi) (1712), Vol. 2.

Yuxian, HebeiThere was a frost in the summer.Ying Li, A Gazetteer of the Yu Prefecture (Yu zhou zhi) (1659), Vol. 1.

Yangyuan, HebeiThere was a frost in the summer.Chongguo Zhang, A Gazetteer of the Xining County (Xining xian zhi) (1712), Vol. 1.

Laiyuan, ShanxiA frost totally destroyed the crops.Shizhi Liu and Wenyao Zhao, A Gazetteer of the Guangchang County (Guangchang xian zhi) (1630).

Guangling, ShanxiThere was a frost in the summer.Huandou Li and Wuding Wang, A Gazetteer of the Guangling County (Guangling xian zhi) (1685), Vol. 1.

Xinzhou, ShanxiA frost destroyed the crops in the 8th month (August 28–September 25th, 1601 AD).Renlong Zhou and Gusui Dou, A Gazetteer of the Xin Prefecture (Xin zhou zhi) (1747), Vol. 4.

Jingle, ShanxiA wind and frost destroyed the crop on the 25th day of the 7th month (August 22, 1601 AD). There was a great famine, and people even resorted to cannibalism.Tuchang Huang, A Gazetteer of the Jingle County (Jingle xian zhi) (1695), Vol. 4.

Baode, ShanxiA killing frost completely destroyed the crops on the 26th day of the 7th month (August 23, 1601 AD). The markets in the city were closed for nine days. People fled away and sold their children. There were victims of starvation everywhere. People were in such a weakened state they even did not care about the deaths of members of their own family.Kechang Wang and Menggao Yin, A Gazetteer of the Baode Prefecture (Baode zhou zhi) (1710), Vol. 3.

Shenchi, ShanxiA frost destroyed the crops in the 7th month (July 29–August 27th, 1601 AD). A great famine occurred in the Jingle and Shenchi counties.Changqing Cui et al., A Gazetteer of the Shenchi County (Shenchi xian zhi) (1880), Vol. 9.

Zuoquan, ShanxiA frost killed the crops in the 8th month (August 28–September 25, 1601 AD).Tianxi Yang and Weitai Hou, A Gazetteer of the Liao Prefecture (Liao zhou zhi) (1673)., Vol. 7.

Linxian, ShanxiThere was a bitter early frost on the 9th day of the 8th month (September 5, 1601 AD). The crops were destroyed. There was a great famine. People ate tree barks and grass roots.Daoyi Wang, et al., A Gazetteer of the Fenzhou Prefecture (Fenzhou fu zhi) (1611), Vol. 16.

Lishi, ShanxiA frost destroyed crops in Yongning County. There was a great famine.Daoyi Wang, et al., A Gazetteer of the Fenzhou Prefecture (Fenzhou fu zhi) (1611), Vol. 16.

Xixian, ShanxiDuring the last ten days of the 10th month (November 15–November 24, 1601 AD), it snowed heavily. The snow was three chi deep. It was considered to be a propitious omen…. There was a frost in the 8th month (August 28–September 25th, 1601 AD) that reduced the harvest. Yikai Qian, A Gazetteer of the Xi Prefecture (Xi zhou zhi) (1710), Vol. 24.

Yulin, ShaanxiA frost destroyed the crops in autumn.Jicong Tan, Gazetteer of the Yansui Fort (Yansui zhen zhi) (1673), Vol. 5.

Yulin, ShaanxiThere were successive snow and hail events in the 8th month (August 28–September 25, 1601 AD), and the crops were totally destroyed.Tingyu Zhang and Zhaonan Qi, Continuation of Comprehensive Study of Documents (Xu wenxian tong kao) (1767), Vol. 223.

Mizhi, ShaanxiA frost destroyed the crops in the 7th month (July 29–August 27, 1601 AD).Yangqi Ning, Gazetteer of Mizhi County (Mizhi xian zhi) (1681), Vol. 1.

Yan’an, ShaanxiA frost destroyed the crops in the autumn.Hui Hong, Revised Gazetteer of Yan’an Prefecture (Chongxiu Yan’an fu zhi) (1802), Vol. 6.

Ningxian, GansuThere was a frost in the 7th month (July 29–August 27, 1601 AD).Benzhi Zhao, New Gazetteer of the Qingyang Prefecture (Xinxiu Qingyang fu zhi) (1761), Vol. 37.

Yangqu, ShanxiThere were epidemics and great famines in the 29th and 30th years of the Wanli Reign Period (i.e., 1601-1602 AD). Mengxiong Dai, Fangtai Li and Fangfan Li, Gazetteer of the Yangqu County (Yangqu xian zhi) (1682), Vol. 1.

Qingxu, ShanxiThere were a great drought and resulting epidemic.Xunxiang Wang and Xiaozun Wang, Gazetteer of the Qingyuan Town (Qingyuan xiang zhi) (1882), Vol. 16.

Linyou, ShaanxiThere were drought and epidemic outbreaks in 1601 AD in Linyou County.Ruwei Wu and Yuantai Liu, Gazetteer of the Linyou County (Linyou xian zhi) (1657), Vol. 1.

Counties with abrupt cooling. Counties with epidemics.
If a weather event is recorded in two or more local gazetteers, the most original or the most detailed one is given.