Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Advances in Meteorology
Volume 2016, Article ID 8736263, 14 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/8736263
Research Article

Assessing Urban Landscape Variables’ Contributions to Microclimates

1Department of Geography, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 220 Stanger Street, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA
2Department of Statistics, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 410 Hutcheson Hall, 250 Drillfield Drive, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA

Received 2 July 2015; Accepted 16 September 2015

Academic Editor: Stefania Bonafoni

Copyright © 2016 Tammy E. Parece et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. B. C. Hedquist and A. J. Brazel, “Urban, residential, and rural climate comparisons from mobile transects and fixed stations: Phoenix, Arizona,” Journal of the Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 77–87, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  2. Q. Weng, “Remote sensing of impervious surfaces in the urban areas: requirements, methods, and trends,” Remote Sensing of Environment, vol. 117, pp. 34–49, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. B. C. Hedquist, H. Su, D. Herrera, and J. Byerly, “Remote sensing image-based analysis of the relationship between the urban heat island and recent land use/cover change in San Antonio, Texas,” in Proceedings of the Association of American Geographers Annual Conference, Chicago, Ill, USA, 2015.
  4. United Nations, World Urbanization Prospects: The 2014 Revision, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, New York, NY, USA, 2014.
  5. A. J. Arnfield, “Two decades of urban climate research: a review of turbulence, exchanges of energy and water, and the urban heat island,” International Journal of Climatology, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 1–26, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. R. Geiger, R. H. Aron, and P. Todhunter, The Climate Near the Ground, Rowman & Littlefield, Lanham, Md, USA, 6th edition, 2003.
  7. T. R. Oke, “Initial guidance to obtain representative meteorological observations at urban sites,” in Instruments and Observing Methods, World Meteorological Organization, Vancouver, Canada, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  8. Davis Intruments, Wireless Vantage Pro2 Spec Sheets, Davis Intruments, Hayward, Calif, USA, 2012.
  9. M. Parry, “The climates of towns,” Weather, vol. 5, no. 10, pp. 351–356, 1950. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  10. D. Morgan, L. Myrup, D. Rogers, and R. Baskett, “Microclimates within an urban area,” Annals of the Association of American Geographers, vol. 67, no. 1, pp. 55–65, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  11. M. Roth, T. R. Oke, and W. J. Emery, “Satellite-derived urban heat islands from three coastal cities and the utilization of such data in urban climatology,” International Journal of Remote Sensing, vol. 10, no. 11, pp. 1699–1720, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. R. Lougeay, A. Brazel, and M. Hubble, “Monitoring intraurban temperature patterns and associated land cover in Phoenix, Arizona using Landsat thermal data,” Geocarto International, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 79–90, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. L. B. Stabler, C. A. Martin, and A. J. Brazel, “Microclimates in a desert city were related to land use and vegetation index,” Urban Forestry and Urban Greening, vol. 3, no. 3-4, pp. 137–147, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. M. C. de Costa Trindade Amorim, J. L. S. A. Neto, and Y. V. Dubreuil, “Estrutura térmica identificada por transectos móveis e canal termal do Landsat 7 EM cidade tropical,” Revista de Geografía Norte Grande, vol. 43, pp. 65–80, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  15. G. Xian and M. Crane, “An analysis of urban thermal characteristics and associated land cover in Tampa Bay and Las Vegas using Landsat satellite data,” Remote Sensing of Environment, vol. 104, no. 2, pp. 147–156, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. C. Rinner and M. Hussain, “Toronto's urban heat island—exploring the relationship between land use and surface temperature,” Remote Sensing, vol. 3, no. 6, pp. 1251–1265, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. C. J. Tomlinson, L. Chapman, J. E. Thornes, and C. J. Baker, “Derivation of Birmingham's summer surface urban heat island from MODIS satellite images,” International Journal of Climatology, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 214–224, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. D. A. Roberts, D. A. Quattrochi, G. C. Hulley, S. J. Hook, and R. O. Green, “Synergies between VSWIR and TIR data for the urban environment: an evaluation of the potential for the Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI) Decadal Survey mission,” Remote Sensing of Environment, vol. 117, pp. 83–101, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. B. Holmer, S. Thorsson, and J. Lindén, “Evening evapotranspirative cooling in relation to vegetation and urban geometry in the city of Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso,” International Journal of Climatology, vol. 33, no. 15, pp. 3089–3105, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. E. B. Peters and J. P. McFadden, “Influence of seasonality and vegetation type on suburban microclimates,” Urban Ecosystems, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 443–460, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. M. Xie, Y. Wang, Q. Chang, M. Fu, and M. Ye, “Assessment of landscape patterns affecting land surface temperature in different biophysical gradients in Shenzhen, China,” Urban Ecosystems, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 871–886, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. H. bencheikh and A. Rchid, “The effects of green spaces (Palme trees) on the microclimate in arides zones, case study: Ghardaia, Algeria,” Energy Procedia, vol. 18, pp. 10–20, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  23. D. A. Quattrochi and M. K. Ridd, “Measurement and analysis of thermal energy responses from discrete urban surfaces using remote sensing data,” International Journal of Remote Sensing, vol. 15, no. 10, pp. 1991–2022, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. I. Ogashawara and V. D. S. B. da Silva Brum, “A quantitative approach for analyzing the relationship between urban heat islands and land cover,” Remote Sensing, vol. 4, no. 11, pp. 3596–3618, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. J. A. Voogt and T. R. Oke, “Thermal remote sensing of urban climates,” Remote Sensing of Environment, vol. 86, no. 3, pp. 370–384, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. A. C. Comrie, “Mapping a wind-modified Urban Heat Island in Tucson, Arizona (with comments on integrating research and undergraduate learning),” Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, vol. 81, no. 10, pp. 2417–2431, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. H. Saaroni, E. Ben-Dor, A. Bitan, and O. Potchter, “Spatial distribution and microscale characteristics of the urban heat island in Tel-Aviv, Israel,” Landscape and Urban Planning, vol. 48, no. 1-2, pp. 1–18, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. M. A. Hart and D. J. Sailor, “Quantifying the influence of land-use and surface characteristics on spatial variability in the urban heat island,” Theoretical and Applied Climatology, vol. 95, no. 3-4, pp. 397–406, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. S. R. Gaffin, C. Rosenzweig, R. Khanbilvardi et al., “Variations in New York city's urban heat island strength over time and space,” Theoretical and Applied Climatology, vol. 94, no. 1-2, pp. 1–11, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. F. Bourbia and F. Boucheriba, “Impact of street design on urban microclimate for semi arid climate (Constantine),” Renewable Energy, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 343–347, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. M. W. Yahia and E. Johansson, “Evaluating the behaviour of different thermal indices by investigating various outdoor urban environments in the hot dry city of Damascus, Syria,” International Journal of Biometeorology, vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 615–630, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. A. Asgarian, B. J. Amiri, and Y. Sakieh, “Assessing the effect of green cover spatial patterns on urban land surface temperature using landscape metrics approach,” Urban Ecosystems, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 209–222, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. A. R. de Andrade, G. S. Pottker, P. C. D. O. Filho, and A. L. D. F. Machado, “Influence of land use on urban climate of a small town,” Acta Scientiarum, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 349–361, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  34. M. Shahrestani, R. Yao, Z. Luo, E. Turkbeyler, and H. Davies, “A field study of urban microclimates in London,” Renewable Energy, vol. 73, pp. 3–9, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. S. Sodoudi, P. Shahmohamadi, K. Vollack, U. Cubasch, and A. I. Che-Ani, “Mitigating the urban heat island effect in megacity Tehran,” Advances in Meteorology, vol. 2014, Article ID 547974, 19 pages, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  36. J. Pugh, A Report on the City of Roanoke's Existing and Possible Urban Tree Canopy, Virginia Department of Forestry, Charlottesville, Va, USA, 2010.
  37. Virginia, Department of Environmental Quality GIS Datasets, 2015, http://www.deq.virginia.gov/ConnectWithDEQ/VEGIS/VEGISDatasets.aspx.
  38. L. Breiman, “Random forests,” Machine Learning, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 5–32, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH · View at Scopus
  39. N. A. C. Cressie, Statistics for Spatial Data, Wiley-Interscience, New York, NY, USA, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet
  40. L. Breimann, “Manual on setting up, using, and understanding random forests V3.1,” 2002, https://www.stat.berkeley.edu/~breiman/Using_random_forests_V3.1.pdf.