Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Advances in Meteorology
Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 9232759, 14 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/9232759
Research Article

Full-Scale Experimental Validation of Large-Eddy Simulation of Wind Flows over Complex Terrain: The Bolund Hill

1CEID, School of Engineering Science, Lappeenranta University of Technology, P.O. Box 20, 53851 Lappeenranta, Finland
2Finnish Meteorological Institute, P.O. Box 503, 00101 Helsinki, Finland
3Lappeenranta University of Technology, P.O. Box 20, 53851 Lappeenranta, Finland

Received 29 May 2016; Accepted 5 September 2016

Academic Editor: Lucian Mihet-Popa

Copyright © 2016 Ashvinkumar Chaudhari et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. A. Maurizi, J. M. L. M. Palma, and F. A. Castro, “Numerical simulation of the atmospheric flow in a mountainous region of the North of Portugal,” Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, vol. 74–76, pp. 219–228, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. H. G. Kim, V. C. Patel, and C. M. Lee, “Numerical simulation of wind flow over hilly terrain,” Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, vol. 87, no. 1, pp. 45–60, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. F. A. Castro, J. M. L. M. Palma, and A. S. Lopes, “Simulation of the Askervein flow. Part 1: Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations (k- turbulence model),” Boundary-Layer Meteorol, vol. 107, no. 3, pp. 501–530, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  4. L. M. S. Paiva, G. C. R. Bodstein, and W. F. Menezes, “Numerical simulation of atmospheric boundary layer flow over isolated and vegetated hills using RAMS,” Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, vol. 97, no. 9-10, pp. 439–454, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. A. El Kasmi and C. Masson, “Turbulence modeling of atmospheric boundary layer flow over complex terrain: a comparison of models at wind tunnel and full scale,” Wind Energy, vol. 13, no. 8, pp. 689–704, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. J. M. Prospathopoulos, E. S. Politis, and P. K. Chaviaropoulos, “Application of a 3D RANS solver on the complex hill of Bolund and assessment of the wind flow predictions,” Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, vol. 107-108, pp. 149–159, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. B. Blocken, A. van der Hout, J. Dekker, and O. Weiler, “CFD simulation of wind flow over natural complex terrain: case study with validation by field measurements for Ria de Ferrol, Galicia, Spain,” Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, vol. 147, pp. 43–57, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. L. Li, P. W. Chan, L. Zhang, and F. Hu, “Numerical simulation of a lee wave case over three-dimensional mountainous terrain under strong wind condition,” Advances in Meteorology, vol. 2013, Article ID 304321, 13 pages, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. Y. Zheng, Y. Miao, S. Liu, B. Chen, H. Zheng, and S. Wang, “Simulating flow and dispersion by using WRF-CFD coupled model in a built-up area of Shenyang, China,” Advances in Meteorology, vol. 2015, Article ID 528618, 15 pages, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. A. Bechmann and N. N. Sørensen, “Hybrid RANS/LES method for wind flow over complex terrain,” Wind Energy, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 36–50, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. S. B. Pope, Turbulent Flows, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 2nd edition, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet
  12. J. Sumner, C. S. Watters, and C. Masson, “CFD in wind energy: the virtual, multiscale wind tunnel,” Energies, vol. 3, no. 5, pp. 989–1013, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. B. Zhou and F. K. Chow, “Turbulence modeling for the stable atmospheric boundary layer and implications for wind energy,” Flow, Turbulence and Combustion, vol. 88, no. 1-2, pp. 255–277, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. T. Allen and A. R. Brown, “Large-eddy simulation of turbulent separated flow over rough hills,” Boundary-Layer Meteorology, vol. 102, no. 2, pp. 177–198, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. T. Tamura, S. Cao, and A. Okuno, “LES study of turbulent boundary layer over a smooth and a rough 2D hill model,” Flow, Turbulence and Combustion, vol. 79, no. 4, pp. 405–432, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. A. Chaudhari, A. Hellsten, O. Agafonova, and J. Hämäläinen, “Large eddy simulation of boundary-layer flows over two-dimensional hills,” in Progress in Industrial Mathematics at ECMI 2012, M. Fontes, M. Günther, and N. Marheineke, Eds., vol. 19 of Mathematics in Industry, pp. 211–218, Springer, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  17. O. Agafonova, A. Koivuniemi, A. Chaudhari, and J. Hämäläinen, “Limits of WAsP modeling in comparison with CFD for wind flow over two-dimensional hills,” in Proceedings of the European Wind Energy Association Conference (EWEA '14), Barcelona, Spain, 2014.
  18. A. Chaudhari, Large-eddy simulation of wind flows over complex terrains for wind energy applications [Ph.D. thesis], Lappeenranta University of Technology, 2014.
  19. E. F. Bradley, “An experimental study of the profiles of wind speed, shearing stress and turbulence at the crest of a large hill,” Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, vol. 106, no. 447, pp. 101–123, 1980. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. G. J. Jenkins, P. J. Mason, W. H. Moores, and R. I. Sykes, “Measurements of the flow structure around Ailsa Craig, a steep three-dimensional, isolated hill,” Quarterly Journalof the Royal Meteorological Society, vol. 107, no. 454, pp. 833–851, 1981. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. P. J. Mason and J. C. King, “Measurements and predictions of flow and turbulence over an isolated hill of moderate slope,” Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, vol. 111, no. 468, pp. 617–640, 1985. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. P. A. Taylor and H. W. Teunissen, “The Askervein hill project: overview and background data,” Boundary-Layer Meteorology, vol. 39, no. 1-2, pp. 15–39, 1987. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. J. R. Salmon, H. W. Teunissen, R. E. Mickle, and P. A. Taylor, “The Kettles hill project: field observations, wind-tunnel simulations and numerical model predictions for flow over a low hill,” Boundary-Layer Meteorology, vol. 43, no. 4, pp. 309–343, 1988. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. S. Emeis, M. S. Courtney, J. Højstrup, and N. O. Jensen, “Hjardemaal experiment data report,” Tech. Rep., Risø National Laboratory, Roskilde, Denmark, 1993. View at Google Scholar
  25. A. Bechmann, Large-eddy simulation of atmospheric flow over complex terrain [Risø-PhD thesis], Risø-PhD-28(EN), 2006.
  26. A. Silva Lopes, J. M. L. M. Palma, and F. A. Castro, “Simulation of the Askervein flow. Part 2: large-eddy simulations,” Boundary-Layer Meteorology, vol. 125, no. 1, pp. 85–108, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. F. K. Chow and R. L. Street, “Evaluation of turbulence closure models for Large-Eddy simulation over complex terrain: flow over Askervein Hill,” Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, vol. 48, no. 5, pp. 1050–1065, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. J.-C. Golaz, J. D. Doyle, and S. Wang, “One-way nested large-eddy simulation over the Askervein hill,” Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, vol. 1, no. 3, p. 6, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  29. J. Berg, J. Mann, A. Bechmann, M. S. Courtney, and H. E. Jørgensen, “The Bolund experiment, part I: flow over a steep, three-dimensional hill,” Boundary-Layer Meteorology, vol. 141, no. 2, pp. 219–243, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. A. Bechmann, N. N. Sørensen, J. Berg, J. Mann, and P.-E. Réthoré, “The Bolund experiment, part II: blind comparison of microscale flow models,” Boundary-Layer Meteorology, vol. 141, no. 2, pp. 245–271, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. A. Bechmann, J. Berg, M. Courtney, H. Ejsing Jørgensen, J. Mann, and N. N. Sørensen, The Bolund Experiment: Overview and Background, Danmarks Tekniske Universitet, Risø National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, 2009.
  32. A. Chaudhari, V. Vuorinen, O. Agafonova, A. Hellsten, and J. Hämäläinen, “Large-eddy simulation for atmospheric boundary layer flows over complex terrains with applications in wind energy,” in Proceedings of the 11th World Congress on Computational Mechanics (WCCM '14), 5th European Conference on Computational Mechanics (ECCM '14), and 6th European Conference on Computational Fluid Dynamics, (ECFD '14), pp. 5205–5216, Barcelona, Spain, 2014.
  33. V. Vuorinen, A. Chaudhari, and J.-P. Keskinen, “Large-eddy simulation in a complex hill terrain enabled by a compact fractional step OpenFOAM® solver,” Advances in Engineering Software, vol. 79, pp. 70–80, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. B. Conan, A. Chaudhari, S. Aubrun, J. van Beeck, J. Hämäläinen, and A. Hellsten, “Experimental and numerical modelling of flow over complex terrain: the Bolund hill,” Boundary-Layer Meteorology, vol. 158, no. 2, pp. 183–208, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. M. Diebold, C. Higgins, J. Fang, A. Bechmann, and M. B. Parlange, “Flow over hills: a large-eddy simulation of the Bolund case,” Boundary-Layer Meteorology, vol. 148, no. 1, pp. 177–194, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. B. Conan, Wind resource accessment in complex terrain by wind tunnel modelling [Ph.D. thesis], Université d’Orléans, Orléans, France, 2012.
  37. T. S. Yeow, A. Cuerva, B. Conan, and J. Pérez-Álvarez, “Wind tunnel analysis of the detachment bubble on Bolund Island,” Journal of Physics: Conference Series, vol. 555, no. 1, Article ID 012021, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. T. S. Yeow, A. Cuerva-Tejero, and J. Pérez-Álvarez, “Reproducing the Bolund experiment in wind tunnel,” Wind Energy, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 153–169, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. A. Yoshizawa, “Bridging between eddy-viscosity-type and second-order models using a twoscale DIA,” in Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium on Turbulent Shear Flow, vol. 3, pp. 23.1.1–23.1.6, Kyoto, Japan, 1993.
  40. OpenCFD, OpenFOAM User and Programmer's Guide, OpenFOAM Foundation, OpenCFD Ltd., 2013.
  41. Pointwise, “Pointwise: mesh & grid generation software,” http://www.pointwise.com/
  42. S. Hanna and J. Chang, “Acceptance criteria for urban dispersion model evaluation,” Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics, vol. 116, no. 3-4, pp. 133–146, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. M. Schatzmann, H. R. Olesen, and J. Franke, COST 732 Model Evaluation Case Studies: Approach and Results, University of Hamburg, 2010.
  44. A. H. Maya Milliez, “Evaluation of dispersion models for improvement and guidance for the use of local-scale emergency response tools; the ‘michelstadt’ modelling exercise—cost action es1006,” in Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Computational Wind Engineering (CWE '14), Hamburg, Germany, 2014.