Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Advances in Meteorology
Volume 2017, Article ID 4197652, 18 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/4197652
Research Article

Classifying Aerosols Based on Fuzzy Clustering and Their Optical and Microphysical Properties Study in Beijing, China

Institute of Remote Sensing and Digital Earth, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China

Correspondence should be addressed to Hui Xu; moc.361@idarhx

Received 14 March 2017; Revised 27 May 2017; Accepted 4 June 2017; Published 24 July 2017

Academic Editor: Harry D. Kambezidis

Copyright © 2017 Wenhao Zhang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanré, and O. Boucher, “A satellite view of aerosols in the climate system,” Nature, vol. 419, no. 6903, pp. 215–223, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. C. E. Adler and G. Hirsch Hadorn, “The IPCC and treatment of uncertainties: topics and sources of dissensus,” Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change, vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 663–676, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  3. M. O. Andreae, C. D. Jones, and P. M. Cox, “Strong present-day aerosol cooling implies a hot future,” Nature, vol. 435, no. 7046, pp. 1187–1190, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. H. Yu, Y. J. Kaufman, M. Chin et al., “A review of measurement-based assessments of the aerosol direct radiative effect and forcing,” Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 613–666, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  5. O. Torres, P. K. Bhartia, J. R. Herman, Z. Ahmad, and J. Gleason, “Derivation of aerosol properties from satellite measurements of backscattered ultraviolet radiation: theoretical basis,” Journal of Geophysical Research D, vol. 103, no. 14, pp. 17099–17110, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. J. Hansen, M. Sato, and R. Ruedy, “Radiative forcing and climate response,” Journal of Geophysical Research D: Atmospheres, vol. 102, no. 6, pp. 6831–6864, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanré, O. Dubovik, A. Karnieli, and L. A. Remer, “Absorption of sunlight by dust as inferred from satellite and ground-based remote sensing,” Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 28, no. 8, pp. 1479–1482, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. M.-K. Kim, W. K. M. Lau, K.-M. Kim, and W.-S. Lee, “A GCM study of effects of radiative forcing of sulfate aerosol on large scale circulation and rainfall in East Asia during boreal spring,” Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 34, no. 24, Article ID L24701, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. A. Pozzer, A. De Meij, J. Yoon, H. Tost, A. K. Georgoulias, and M. Astitha, “AOD trends during 2001-2010 from observations and model simulations,” Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol. 15, no. 10, pp. 5521–5535, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, J. S. Reid et al., “Wavelength dependence of the optical depth of biomass burning, urban, and desert dust aerosols,” Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 104, no. 24, pp. 31333–31349, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. O. Dubovik, B. Holben, T. F. Eck et al., “Variability of absorption and optical properties of key aerosol types observed in worldwide locations,” Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, vol. 59, no. 3, pp. 590–608, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. M. Balarabe, K. Abdullah, and M. Nawawi, “Seasonal Variations of Aerosol Optical Properties and Identification of Different Aerosol Types Based on AERONET Data over Sub-Sahara West-Africa,” Atmospheric and Climate Sciences, vol. 06, no. 01, pp. 13–28, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  13. J. Lee, J. Kim, C. H. Song et al., “Characteristics of aerosol types from AERONET sunphotometer measurements,” Atmospheric Environment, vol. 44, no. 26, pp. 3110–3117, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. A. H. Omar, J. Won, D. M. Winker, S. Yoon, O. Dubovik, and M. P. McCormick, “Development of global aerosol models using cluster analysis of Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) measurements,” Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 110, no. 10, pp. 1–14, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. R. C. Levy, L. A. Remer, and O. Dubovik, “Global aerosol optical properties and application to Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer aerosol retrieval over land,” Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres, vol. 112, no. 13, Article ID D13210, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. Y. Qin and R. M. Mitchell, “Characterisation of episodic aerosol types over the Australian continent,” Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 1943–1956, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. K. H. Lee and Y. J. Kim, “Satellite remote sensing of Asian aerosols: a case study of clean, polluted, and Asian dust storm days,” Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, vol. 3, no. 6, pp. 1771–1784, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. P. J. Sheridan, D. J. Delene, and J. A. Ogren, “Four years of continuous surface aerosol measurements from the Department of Energy’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Southern Great Plains Cloud and Radiation Testbed site,” Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres, vol. 106, no. 18, Article ID 2001JD000785, pp. 20735–20747, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. W. Zhang, X. Gu, H. Xu, T. Yu, and F. Zheng, “Assessment of OMI near-UV aerosol optical depth over Central and East Asia,” Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, vol. 121, no. 1, pp. 382–398, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. L. Wu and Q.-C. Zeng, “Classifying Asian dust aerosols and their columnar optical properties using fuzzy clustering,” Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres, vol. 119, no. 5, pp. 2529–2542, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. S. D. Xie, Z. Liu, T. Chen, and L. Hua, “Spatiotemporal variations of ambient PM10 source contributions in Beijing in 2004 using positive matrix factorization,” Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol. 8, no. 10, pp. 2701–2716, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. X. Zhao, X. Zhang, W. Pu, W. Meng, and X. Xu, “Scattering properties of the atmospheric aerosol in Beijing, China,” Atmospheric Research, vol. 101, no. 3, pp. 799–808, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. X. Zheng, X. Liu, F. Zhao, F. Duan, T. Yu, and H. Cachier, “Seasonal characteristics of biomass burning contribution to Beijing aerosol,” Science in China, Series B: Chemistry, vol. 48, no. 5, pp. 481–488, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. B. Guinot, H. Cachier, J. Sciare, Y. Tong, W. Xin, and Y. Jianhua, “Beijing aerosol: atmospheric interactions and new trends,” Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, vol. 112, no. 14, Article ID D14314, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. X. He, C. C. Li, A. K. Lau et al., “An intensive study of aerosol optical properties in Beijing urban area,” Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol. 9, no. 22, pp. 8903–8915, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  26. P. Liu, C. Zhao, Q. Zhang et al., “Aircraft study of aerosol vertical distributions over Beijing and their optical properties,” Tellus B, vol. 61, no. 5, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  27. X. Yu, B. Zhu, Y. Yin, J. Yang, Y. Li, and X. Bu, “A comparative analysis of aerosol properties in dust and haze-fog days in a Chinese urban region,” Atmospheric Research, vol. 99, no. 2, pp. 241–247, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. X. Yu, C. Shi, J. Ma et al., “Aerosol optical properties during firework, biomass burning and dust episodes in Beijing,” Atmospheric Environment, vol. 81, pp. 475–484, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. H. Che, X. Xia, J. Zhu et al., “Aerosol optical properties under the condition of heavy haze over an urban site of Beijing, China,” Environmental science and pollution research international, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 1043–1053, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. J. C. Bezdek, Pattern Recognition with Fuzzy Objective Function Algorithms, Plenum Press, New York, NY, USA, 1981. View at MathSciNet
  31. B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker et al., “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sensing of Environment, vol. 66, no. 1, pp. 1–16, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben et al., “Accuracy assessments of aerosol optical properties retrieved from Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) Sun and sky radiance measurements,” Journal of Geophysical Research D: Atmospheres, vol. 105, no. 8, pp. 9791–9806, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. G. S. Brown, “The validity of shadowing corrections in rough surface scattering,” Radio Science, vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 1461–1468, 1984. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, Germany, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  35. K. Okada, J. Heintzenberg, K. Kai, and Y. Qin, “Shape of atmospheric mineral particles collected in three Chinese arid-regions,” Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 28, no. 16, pp. 3123–3126, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus