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Advances in Meteorology
Volume 2018, Article ID 2650642, 15 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/2650642
Research Article

The Impact of Façade Orientation and Woody Vegetation on Summertime Heat Stress Patterns in a Central European Square: Comparison of Radiation Measurements and Simulations

1Department of Climatology and Landscape Ecology, University of Szeged, Egyetem u. 2, 6722 Szeged, Hungary
2School of Technology and Business Studies, Dalarna University, 79188 Falun, Sweden

Correspondence should be addressed to János Unger; uh.degezs-u.oeg@regnu

Received 11 September 2017; Accepted 12 November 2017; Published 15 January 2018

Academic Editor: Hiroshi Tanaka

Copyright © 2018 Noémi Kántor et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Increasing summertime air temperature deteriorates human health especially in cities where the warming tendency is exacerbated by urban heat island. Human-biometeorological studies shed light on the primary role of radiation conditions in the development of summertime heat stress. However, only a limited number of field investigations have been conducted up to now. Based on a 26-hour long complex radiation measurement, this study presents the evolved differences within a medium-sized rectangular square in Szeged, Hungary. Besides assessing the impact of woody vegetation and façade orientation on the radiation heat load, different modeling software programs (ENVI-met, SOLWEIG, and RayMan) are evaluated in reproducing mean radiant temperature (). Although daytime can reach an extreme level at exposed locations (65–75°C), mature shade trees can reduce it to 30–35°C. Nevertheless, shading from buildings adjacent to sidewalks plays also an important role in mitigating pedestrian heat stress. Sidewalks facing SE, S, and SW do not benefit from the shading effect of buildings; therefore, shading them by trees or artificial shading devices is of high importance. The measurement–model comparison revealed smaller or larger discrepancies that raise awareness of the careful adaptation of any modeling software and of the relevance of fine-resolution field measurements.