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Advances in Meteorology
Volume 2019, Article ID 1612503, 14 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/1612503
Research Article

Harmonic Analysis of the Spatiotemporal Pattern of Thunderstorms in Iran (1961–2010)

1Department of Agriculture, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran
2Department of Geography, University of Zanjan, Zanjan, Iran
3Department of Geography, Lorestan University, Khorramabad, Lorestan 6813833946, Iran
4Department of Geography, University of Zanjan, Zanjan 3879145371, Iran
5Department of Physical Geography, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran
6Department of Geography, Yazd University, Yazd 8915818411, Iran
7Institute for Atmospheric Sciences, University of Iceland and Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO), Bustadavegur 7, IS-108 Reykjavik, Iceland
8Department of Physics, University of Iceland, Institute for Atmospheric Sciences and Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO), Bustadavegur 7, IS-108 Reykjavik, Iceland
9Geographic Information System (GIS) Cell, Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology Allahabad, Prayagraj-211004, India
10Civil Engineering Department, and Member of GIS Cell, Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology Allahabad, Prayagraj-211004, India
11Center for Space Science and Technology in Asia and the Pacific (CSSTEAP), Dehradun-248001, India
12Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Shahjalal University of Science & Technology, Sylhet-3114, Bangladesh, India
13Department of Physical Geography, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran

Correspondence should be addressed to Esmaeil Haghighi; moc.liamg@5891ihgihgah.s and Iman Rousta; ri.ca.dzay@atsuori

Received 30 August 2018; Revised 9 December 2018; Accepted 23 December 2018; Published 11 February 2019

Academic Editor: Helena A. Flocas

Copyright © 2019 Ali Akbar Sabziparvar et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The current study aimed at investigating cycles and the spatial autocorrelation pattern of anomalies of thunderstorms in Iran during different periods from 1961 to 2010. In this analysis, 50-year periods (1961–2010) of thunderstorm codes have been collected from 283 synoptic stations of Meteorological Organization of Iran. The study period has been divided into five different decades (1961–1970, 1971–1980, 1981–1990, 1991–2000, and 2001–2010). Spectral analysis and Moran’s I were used to analyze cycles and the spatial autocorrelation pattern, respectively. Furthermore, in order to conduct the calculations, programming facilities of MATLAB have been explored. Finally, Surfer and GIS were employed to come up with the graphical depiction of the maps. The results showed that the maximum of positive anomalies mainly occurred in the northwestern and western parts of Iran due to their special topography, during all the five studied periods. On the other hand, the minimum of negative anomalies took place in central regions of the country because of lack of appropriate conditions (e.g., enough humidity). Moran’s I spatial analysis further confirmed these findings as Moran’s I depicts the positive and negative spatial autocorrelation patterns in line with negative and positive anomalies, respectively. However, in recent decades, this pattern has experienced a declining trend, especially in southern areas of Iran. The results of harmonic analysis indicated that mainly short-term and midterm cycles dominated Iran’s thunderstorms.