Elevated Circulating Angiogenic Progenitors and White Blood Cells Are Associated with Hypoxia-Inducible Angiogenic Growth Factors in Children with Sickle Cell Disease
Diagram of CPC and WBC mobilization by vaso-occlusion induced tissue ischemia. Vaso-occlusion by sickled red blood cells (RBCs, red) results in tissue ischemia and reperfusion (navy blue). Repeated episodes of vascular ischemia are likely to promote vessel injury (black). Green arrows depict balanced physiologic processes that aim to restore equilibrium. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF, gray) produced by ischemic tissues stimulates angiogenic growth factors and bone marrow mobilization of angiogenic progenitor cells (CPCs, brown) that participate in vascular repair, white blood cells (light blue) that promote inflammation, and more sickle red blood cells.