Traditional Herbal Management of Sickle Cell Anemia: Lessons from Nigeria
Some bioactive agents of P. guineense and E. caryophyllata—components of Niprisan.
Chemistry and pharmacology
β-Caryophyllene is a warm constituent of P. guineense, found also in C. sativa and clove. It occurs as a mixture with α-caryophyllene. It has been found to bind selectively to cannabinoid receptor type 2. This is a key finding given the role of this receptor in pain control.
Piperine and chavicine are geometric isomers responsible for the pungency of P. guineense, constitute ~5–8%, and are used as ethnomedicines.
Capsaicin is (8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide) a pungent constituent that produces a burning-sensation in all tissues. Capsaicin and related compounds are called capsaicinoids or vanilloids.
Cubebin is tetrahydrodiperonyl-2-furanol. The furanyl and piperonyl (or vanilyl) groups draw attention to the palliate roles of furan and vanilloids in SCD crisis. “Cubebine” is French designation for diethylether extract of P. cubeba.