Figure 2: Optically controlled 3D culturing process. (a) The cell sample in hydrogel solution is introduced to the device chamber. (b) Desired cells are trapped in PNIPAAm hydrogel (cylindrical volume) using localized optical heating. (c) Undesired cells that remain in solution are flushed from the device. (d) While maintaining the hydrogel above the LCST, the PDMS chamber is removed, and the device substrate with the patterned 3D hydrogel is placed into culture media to allow cell growth.