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Figure 7: (a) A microscopic image of SWNT-embedded valves and channels in multilayer PDMS microfluidic structures. The channel is bonded on an OET chip. (b) A SEM image of SWNT network embedded in the surface of PDMS. (c, d) Bright field and fluorescence image of 10 μm fluorescence particles underneath an SWNT electrode. (e) Measured sheet resistance of SWNT-embedded PDMS electrodes and its relation with optical transmittance at 632 nm. (f) A series of pictures showing the valve function by deforming the SWNT membrane electrode. The white arrows are the flow directions of the dye solution in the flow channels. The black arrows show the pressure sources to deform the membranes. The dye solution can be stopped by pushing down the membrane. The scale bars are 600 μm.