Figure 4: Optoelectrofluidic manipulation of biomolecules. (a) Electrophoretic separation of proteins based on optically modulated DC electric field (adapted by permission from Hafeman et al. [51], Copyright 2006 National Academy of Sciences, USA). (b) Concentration of DNA molecules using optically induced dielectrophoresis (DEP) and quantification of their DEP mobility (adapted from Hoeb et al. [53], Copyright 2007, with permission from Elsevier). (c) Dynamic control of local concentration of proteins, polysaccharides, and fluorescent dyes using optically induced ACEO vortices and their characteristics depending on the applied AC voltage and frequency (adapted with permission from Hwang and Park [54], Copyright 2009 American Chemical Society). (d) Trapping and stretching of long DNA molecule using ET flows induced by a laser source focused into an AC electric field (adapted with permission from Nakano et al. [55], Copyright 2006, American Institute of Physics).