The Effect of the Type of Screw Fixation Used in the Treatment of Slipped Capital Femoral EpiphysisRead the full article
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Primary Repair versus Reconstruction in Patients with Bilateral Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries: What Do Patients Prefer?
Purpose. The purpose is to evaluate knee preference and functional outcomes of patients with primary anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) repair in one knee and ACL reconstruction in the contralateral side. Methods. All patients who underwent both procedures were retrospectively reviewed at minimum two-year follow-up. Patients were asked to complete questionnaires regarding their operated knees’ preferences during rehabilitation, daily activities, sports activities, and overall function. Furthermore, the Subjective International Knee Documentation Committee, Forgotten Joint Score-12, and Anterior Cruciate Ligament-Return to Sport after Injury were completed. Results. Twenty-one patients were included. All patients underwent ACL reconstruction first, which was displayed at younger age at surgery (24 vs. 33 years, ) and longer follow-up (10.2 vs. 2.3 years, ), respectively. Thirty-three percent preferred the repaired knee, 11% the reconstructed knee, and 56% had no preference; however, 78% indicated that their repaired knee was less painful during rehabilitation and 83% reported earlier range of motion (ROM) return following repair, which was similar for both knees in 17%. Eighty-three percent of patients indicated better function and progression during rehabilitation with their repaired knee and 11% with their reconstructed knees. No statistical differences were found in patient-reported outcomes between both procedures (all ). Objective laxity assessment showed mean side-to-side difference of 0.6 mm between both sides in favor of the reconstructed knee. Conclusion. This study showed that ACL repair and ACL reconstruction lead to similar functional outcomes. However, patients undergoing both procedures may have less pain, earlier ROM return, and faster rehabilitation progression following primary repair.
Bone Fracture Patterns and Distributions according to Trauma Energy
Background. This study investigates the effect of injury mechanism and energy on fracture patterns and distributions. Also, it compares differences in bone fracture patterns based on injury mechanism, gender, and age. Methods. Three thousand and sixty-six admitted patients with bone fractures were reviewed retrospectively, and the fractures were analyzed regarding age, gender, and mechanism of injury. Fractures were located in eleven bones. However, the forearm, hand, leg, and foot were considered one bone, and the fracture was then subclassified according to the anatomic position within each bone. Trauma energy was classified according to the mechanism of injury where simple falls were considered low-energy injury while falling from a height, road traffic accidents, bullet, and industrial injuries were considered high energy. Results. Males represented most of the patients, and most injuries occurred in adults. However, the male patients were more prone to injuries than females across all age groups below fifty years, women above fifty years were more frequent, and a third of females’ injuries occurred in the elderly. Simple falls represent two-thirds of the trauma mechanism, and falling from a height and road traffic accidents are the most common high-energy injuries and more prevalent in males. Scapular, clavicular, distal humerus, and shaft of long bones fractures were more prevalent in males. In contrast, females had a higher frequency of proximal humerus, proximal and distal femur, distal leg, and thoracic spine fractures. Industrial injuries are more frequent in males; thus, hand injuries are more frequent. Pathological fractures were higher in females, and spine and pelvic fractures were more associated with high-energy injuries. Conclusions. The trauma’s energy determines the bone injury’s extent and nature. Knowing the trauma mechanism is essential to expect the extent of injuries and construct preventive measures accordingly.
Knowledge and Attitude of Sciatica Pain and Treatment Methods among Adults in Saudi Arabia
Background. Sciatica is a relatively common condition, with a lifetime incidence varying from 13% to 40%. The corresponding annual incidence of an episode of sciatica ranges from 1% to 5%. The exact cause of sciatica is unknown to this day; treatment methods and practices differ between individuals based on their cultural background, socioeconomic status, and religious beliefs. This study aimed to assess the knowledge and attitude toward sciatica pain among adults in Saudi Arabia. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted among the adult population in Saudi Arabia. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed among the study population using an online survey. Questions were divided into four groups, each containing multiple questions covering the following aspects: demographic data, past medical history, and the assessment of knowledge and attitudes regarding sciatica. Results. A total of 3,764 respondents were involved in this study, with an age range of 18–65 years old (females 59.8%). The mean knowledge score was 3.8 (SD 2.1), with the majority having poor knowledge (60.1%). The most common source of sciatica information was an orthopedic or a neurosurgeon, while the most common self-treatment used was painkiller medications (30.8%). The mean attitude score was 35.8 (SD 5.3), with most respondents having a neutral attitude (80.3%). The factors correlated with an increase in knowledge and attitude were having a bachelor’s or higher degree and living in an urban area. Conclusion. While the attitude of the adult population toward sciatica pain seems adequate, their knowledge was shown to be deficient. Furthermore, when comparing diagnosed individuals living in cities with those in rural areas, both knowledge and attitudes were shown to be better in individuals living in cities. Awareness programs by health institutions and healthcare professionals are needed to enhance patients knowledge. Various media can be utilized to enhance patients knowledge including social media platforms.
Simultaneous Bilateral Total Knee Arthroplasty in Elderly: Are There Factors that Can Influence Safety and Clinical Outcome?
Objective. The aim of this study was to look for preoperative patients’ related factors correlating with worse clinical outcomes in a cohort of elderly patients undergoing simultaneous bilateral total knee arthroplasty (SiBTKA) to search for risk factors, which may influence clinical outcomes and safety. Subjects and Methods. The hospital database was mined searching for patients older than 70 years that underwent SiBTKA for severe bilateral knee osteoarthritis (OA) between 2012 and 2016. Preoperative clinical information, Oxford Knee Score (OKS), and Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) prior to surgery were recorded. The OKS and the KOOS were submitted again after a minimum of 5 years of follow-up (FU). Results. An improvement was observed in all clinical scores at last FU. The major complication rate was 5.4%. No patients’ clinical data showed correlation with perioperative complications or need for transfusions. Functional scores at the last FU were negatively affected by age at surgery and positively affected by preoperative clinical scores. Discussion. In the setting of severe symptomatic bilateral knee OA, SiBTKA seems to be effective in improving symptoms at midterm follow-up, with acceptable rates of perioperative complications in patients older than 70. Higher age at surgery and lower preoperative functional scores are associated with worse clinical outcomes at FU. This could assist surgeons in advising patients that delay of surgical treatment could worsen outcomes.
Femoral Valgus Correction Angle for the Intramedullary Alignment Rod Is Strongly Associated with Femoral Lateral Bowing in Japanese Patients with Varus Knee Osteoarthritis Undergoing Total Knee Arthroplasty
Background. This study aimed to investigate factors, such as differences in femoral shape, that could affect the femoral valgus correction angle (VCA) for the intramedullary alignment rod (IM rod) by using a three-dimensional (3D) measurement system in patients with varus knee osteoarthritis undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Methods. A total of 305 knees in 233 Japanese patients with varus knee osteoarthritis who underwent primary TKA by using Jig Engaged 3D Pre-Operative Planning Software for the TKA operation support system was examined. We retrospectively analysed factors, such as the shape of the proximal, middle, and distal femur in the coronal plane, all of which could affect the VCA for the IM rod, by multiple linear regression analyses. Results. The VCA for the IM rod was 5.9° ± 1.6° (range: 1.7° to 10.7°), and the femoral lateral bowing angle (FBA) was 3.5° ± 3.2°. Major factors independently associated with the VCA for the IM rod were the FBA (β: 0.75), femoral offset (β: 0.38), and the medial angle between the mechanical femoral axis and the line that connects the distal margins of the medial and lateral femoral condyles (β: −0.16). The model was created by stepwise multiple linear regression (F = 266.6, , and estimated effect size = 4.4) explained 85% of the variance in the VCA for the IM rod (R2 = 0.85). Conclusions. The VCA for the IM rod was most strongly associated with femoral lateral bowing in patients with varus knee osteoarthritis undergoing TKA. Our findings suggest that preoperatively measuring the VCA for the IM rod in patients with femoral lateral bowing by using a 3D measurement system could be useful for accurate coronal alignment of the femoral component in TKA.
Opioid Sparing Analgesics in Spine Surgery
Combinations of various nonopioid analgesics have been used to decrease pain and opioid consumption postoperatively allowing for faster recovery, improved patient satisfaction, and decreased morbidity. These opioid alternatives include acetaminophen, NSAIDs, COX-2 specific inhibitors, gabapentinoids, local anesthetics, dexamethasone, and ketamine. Each of these drugs presents its own advantages and disadvantages which can make it difficult to implement universally. In addition, ambiguous administration guidelines for these nonopioid analgesics lead to a difficult implementation of standardization protocols in spine surgery. A focus on the efficacy of different pain modalities specifically within spine surgery was implemented to assist with this standardized protocol endeavor and to educate surgeons on limiting opioid prescribing in the postoperative period. The purpose of this review article is to investigate the various opioid sparing medications that have been used to decrease morbidity in spine surgery and better assist surgeons in managing postoperative pain. Methods. A narrative review of published literature was conducted using the search function in Google scholar and PubMed was used to narrow down search criteria. The keywords “analgesics,” “spine,” and “pain” were used.