Initial Rotational Instability of the Tapered Wedge-Shaped Type Cementless StemRead the full article
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Cementless Metaphyseal Sleeve Fixation in Revision Knee Arthroplasty: Our Experience with an Arabic Population at the Midterm
Objective. Metaphyseal sleeve (MS) fixation in revision knee arthroplasty (RKA) among Western populations has been reported with very encouraging outcomes. The aim of this study was to report our experience with the use of MS in RKA among an Arabic population. Clinical and radiographic outcomes and implant survivorship were reported at a minimum follow-up of 2 years and a mean follow-up of 4.1 years. Methods. A retrospective analysis was conducted on prospectively collected data of patients who underwent RKA with a MS in combination with a cementless stem (femoral or tibial). Range of motion (ROM) and Knee Society Score (KSS) were obtained pre- and postoperatively. Complications, occurrence of stem-tip pain, and implant survival were documented. Knee radiographs were obtained to evaluate the alignment and osseointegration or loosening of the MS. Results. A total of 52 sleeves (27 tibial and 25 femoral) implanted in 27 RKAs (27 patients) were included. The mean follow-up period was 4.1 ± 1.8 (2–7.5) years. Postoperatively, the ROM improved from 89.3 ± 9.2 to 106.3 ± 11.4 ( = 0.19) and the KSS also significantly improved, from 102.9 ± 35.6 to 130.2 ± 33.7 ( < 0.001). One patient (3.7%) developed heterotopic ossification, and another one (3.7 %) had a stem-tip pain on the tibial side; both were managed conservatively. One patient (3.7 %) sustained a fracture and required reoperation. None of the sleeves showed progressive radiolucent lines, and none required revision. The aseptic survivorship and overall survivorship at a mean of 4.1 years were 100% and 96.3%, respectively. Conclusion. MS provided successful midterm outcomes that were maintained in obese patients with different levels of constraint. Our series supports their use as a viable option in RKA.
Comparison of Effectiveness between Cobalt Chromium Rods versus Titanium Rods for Treatment of Patients with Spinal Deformity: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Background. Biomechanical properties of rods determine their ability to correct spinal deformity and prevention of postoperative sagittal and coronal changes. The selection of a proper rod material is crucial due to their specific mechanical properties that influence the surgical outcome. The purpose of this study is to compare the effectiveness of cobalt chromium rods versus titanium rods for the treatment of spinal deformity by a systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods. PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane library were searched for observational and biomechanical studies comparing cobalt chromium and titanium rods in terms of correction rate, thoracic kyphosis, lumbar lordosis, incidence of rod fracture, fatigue life of contoured rod, bending stiffness of rods, and occurrence of proximal junctional kyphosis. The demographic data and mean values of outcomes of interest were extracted from each group and compared by their mean difference as an overall outcome measure. The Review Manager software (RevMan 5.3) was utilized at a 95% significance level. Results. Eleven eligible studies with 641 participants for 7 observational studies and 35 samples for 4 biomechanical studies were identified. There were no significant differences between cobalt chromium and titanium rods in the correction rate of spinal deformity. Postoperative thoracic kyphosis was well restored in the cobalt chromium group with statistical significance ( value = 0.009). The incidence of rod fracture was high in titanium rods compared to cobalt chromium rods with significant difference ( value = 0.0001). Proximal junctional kyphosis occurs more in the cobalt chromium group with a significant difference ( value = 0.0009). No statistical significance between two materials in terms of lumbar lordosis, fatigue of life, and bending stiffness of rods. Conclusion. The cobalt chromium rod is better than titanium rod for effective correction of spinal deformity and postoperative stability of the spine. However, the use of cobalt chromium rods is associated with increased risk of proximal junctional kyphosis.
Evaluating Clinical Outcomes for Determining the Optimal Delay to Skin Incision under WALANT: A Prospective Series of 34 Patients from a Low-Resource Tertiary Setting
Background. Additional studies on clinical outcomes to determine the optimal time delay from injection of local anesthesia to skin incision for WALANT surgeries are needed. The authors aimed to propose the optimal time delay from local injection to skin incision for WALANT surgeries of the hand and wrist by analyzing intraoperative blood loss, postoperative pain scores, and complication rates. Methods. Thirty-four patients were consecutively recruited and allocated by either 7-min or 30-min delay for skin incision from local injection of epinephrine with lidocaine. Intraoperative bleeding and postoperative pain scores were analyzed between both groups by Mann–Whitney U-test, while complication rates were compared using Fisher’s exact test. Results. The present study did not find significant differences in mean intraoperative blood loss (8 ± 5.8 mL vs. 5 ± 2.2 mL, ), complication rates (18% vs. 0%, ), and mean pain scores (1.2 ± 0.5 vs. 1.4 ± 0.5, ) between the 7-min and 30-min groups. Conclusion. The authors conclude that a waiting time of 7 min from the injection of local anesthesia is sufficient to achieve comparable clinical outcomes for minor hand and wrist surgeries under WALANT.
The Ischial Spine in Developmental Hip Dysplasia: Unraveling the Role of Acetabular Retroversion in Periacetabular Osteotomy
Purpose. Radiological diagnosis of acetabular retroversion (AR) is based on the presence of the crossover sign (COS), the posterior wall sign (PWS), and the prominence of the ischial spine sign (PRISS). The primary purpose of the study is to analyze the clinical significance of the PRISS in a sample of dysplastic hips requiring periacetabular osteotomy (PAO) and evaluate retroversion in symptomatic hip dysplasia. Methods. In a previous paper, we reported the classic coxometric measurements of 178 patients with symptomatic hip dysplasia undergoing PAO where retroversion was noted in 42% of the cases and was not found to be a major factor in the appearance of symptoms. In the current study, we have added the retroversion signs PRISS and PWS to our analysis. Among the retroverted dysplastic hips, we studied the association of the PRISS with the hips requiring PAO. We also defined the ischial spine index (ISI) and studied its relationship to the coxometric measurements and AR. Results. In hips with AR, the operated hips were significantly associated with the PRISS compared to the nonoperated ones ( = 4.847). Additionally, the ISI was able to classify acetabular version (anteverted, neutral, and retroverted acetabula). A direct correlation between the ISI and the retroversion index (RI) was found, and the highest degree of retroversion was found when the 3 signs of acetabular retroversion were concomitantly present (RI = 33.6%). Conclusion. The PRISS, a radiographic sign reflecting AR, was found to be significantly associated with dysplastic hips requiring PAO where AR was previously not considered a factor in the manifestation of symptoms and subsequent requirement for surgery. Moreover, the PRISS can also serve as an adequate radiographic sign for estimating acetabular version on pelvic radiographs.
Long-Term Effectiveness of Polymerized-Type I Collagen Intra-Articular Injections in Patients with Symptomatic Knee Osteoarthritis: Clinical and Radiographic Evaluation in a Cohort Study
Objective. Polymerized-type I collagen (polymerized-collagen) is a downregulator of inflammation and a tissue regenerator. The aim was to evaluate the effect of intra-articular injections (IAIs) of polymerized-collagen among patients with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (OA) in delaying or preventing joint replacement surgery. Patients and Methods. This was a cohort study of 309 patients with knee OA. Patients with mild-to-moderate disease were treated weekly with IAIs of 2 mL of polymerized-collagen for six weeks (n = 309). Follow-up was for 6–60 months. The primary endpoints included the following determinations: (1) therapeutic effect; (2) survival from total knee replacement surgery (TKR); (3) Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) and pain (visual analogue scale, VAS). Clinical improvement was defined as a decrease in pain exceeding 20 mm on the VAS and the achievement of at least 20% improvement from baseline with respect to the WOMAC score. Radiographic analysis was performed at baseline and 60 months. The joint space width in the medial, lateral, and patellofemoral compartments was calculated. Results. Patients who received IAIs of polymerized-collagen had a statistically significant improvement in the primary criteria (). Kaplan–Meier survival analysis of the therapeutic effect demonstrated 98.8% survival at 60 months with TKR as the endpoint. There was no significant reduction in joint space in any compartment based on the analyzed radiographs. No serious adverse events were recorded. Conclusion. Polymerized-collagen increased the time to TKR by at least 60 months, modifying the disease course, improving functional disability, and decreasing pain.
Posterior Occipitocervical Fusion for Unstable Upper Cervical Trauma in Old and Elderly Population, Although Decreases Upper Cervical Rotation, Does Not Significantly Increase Neck Disability Index
Background. Despite the research progress in the thoraco-lumbo-pelvic balance, cervical spine balance has only recently gained increasing interest. To our knowledge, there is a lack of research regarding sagittal occipitocervical spine balance restoration following posterior occipitocervical fusion (POCF). Purpose. The primary outcome measure is the evaluation of sagittal cervical alignment roentgenographic parameters and the secondary is the functional outcome (NDI), following POCF for upper (C1 & C2) cervical trauma (UCT) in coexistence with upper cervical spine degeneration. Patients and Methods. Twenty old and elderly patients aged 62 ± 12 years with evident upper cervical degeneration, who received POCF for upper C1 & C2 unstable cervical spine injuries, were included. C2-C7 lordosis, C2-C7 SVA, spinocranial angle (SCA), T1-slope, neck tilt (NT), thorax inlet angle (TIA), cervical tilt (CT), cranial tilt (CrT), and C0-C1 angle were measured. The subfusion angle was used to study the behavior of the unfused cervical segments below fusion. The Neck Disability Index (NDI) was used for the functional outcome evaluation. 29 age-matched individuals were used as controls for radiographic analysis and self-reported functional status comparison. Results. The roentgenographic data were measured 3 and 39 ± 12 months postoperatively. Twelve patients showed no disability, and eight showed mild disability. Postoperatively, the patients stood with less C2-C7 lordosis, SCA, and CT () but with higher NT () in comparison to the controls. The patient’s neck disability (NDI) was increasing as TIA increases (). Subfusion angle seems to adapt to C2-C7 lordosis (3) and C0-C2 angle () without any changes till the last evaluation. Conclusions. POCF sufficiently restored occipitocervical sagittal balance along with functional outcome similar to controls in adult and elderly individuals with evident upper cervical degeneration. We do not recommend POCF for young active individuals without occipitocervical pathology, but in contrary, we recommend the removal of the spinocranial connection hardware after cervical fusion is completed.