Minimally Invasive Technique in the Management of Tibial Pilon Fractures: New Approach and Promising ResultsRead the full article
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Efficacy of Percutaneous Image-Guided Rupture of Lumbar Facet Cysts: A Retrospective Study
Background. Percutaneous rupture of lumbar facet cysts (LFC) is the only nonsurgical treatment which is effective in directly reducing cysts. However, this is not yet a common procedure, and its effectiveness, including the associated complications, remains unclear. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the clinical outcomes of percutaneous rupture for LFC and elucidate whether this minimally invasive procedure could become an alternative to surgeries for cases resistant to conservative treatments. Methods. This study investigated 57 symptomatic patients with LFC for whom conservative treatments were ineffective and underwent percutaneous rupture of the LFC. All patients were followed up for >2 years posttreatment. Clinical evaluations (visual analogue scale (VAS) and recovery rate calculated using the Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) scores) and radiographic evaluations (size of LFC based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)) were performed from pretreatment to the final follow-up examination. Results. Successful LFC rupture, without hospitalization and general anesthesia, was achieved in 48 patients. No severe complications occurred during treatment through the last observation. Satisfactory clinical results with significant improvements in the VAS and JOA scores were obtained (VAS: pre/posttreatment: 80.7 mm/11.2 mm, JOA: pre/posttreatment: 15.6 points/26.7 points, and recovery rate: 82.3%). A significant reduction in the LFC was also observed in all cases based on the posttreatment MRI findings. No successful rupture cases required subsequent surgical treatments, although four cases of LFC recurrence required additional percutaneous rupture treatment. Conclusions. Percutaneous rupture for LFC is not only a safe and minimally invasive procedure without any severe complications or requirements for hospitalization and general anesthesia but also a beneficial procedure that can eliminate the need for surgery in cases resistant to conservative treatments.
Is the Combination of Platelet-Rich Plasma and Hyaluronic Acid the Best Injective Treatment for Grade II-III Knee Osteoarthritis? A Prospective Study
Background. Knee osteoarthritis is a common disease with increasing incidence and prevalence in western countries. It can cause severe pain and functional limitations, thereby representing a threat for patients’ quality of life and a burden for national health systems. Intra-articular injections with hyaluronic acid (HA) and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) have been used for decades in order to reduce the symptoms caused by osteoarthritis. In recent years, a combination of HA and PRP has been introduced in clinical practice with the aim to minimize the clinical presentation of osteoarthritis and potentially delay articular degeneration. Materials and Methods. Sixty cases with grade II-III knee osteoarthritis according to the Kellgren–Lawrence classification were included in a prospective study, focused on the evaluation of clinical and functional outcomes after intra-articular knee injections. Cases were randomly divided into three groups. Twenty cases (Group A) were injected with HA, 20 (Group B) had PRP, and the remaining 20 (Group C) received a combination of HA and PRP. Basal WOMAC score and VAS score were recorded before the treatment and repeated within 3 and 6 months after the treatment. Results. At 6-month follow-up, Group C (PRP + HA) was the one with the lowest WOMAC and VAS mean values. It was also the only group that reported a reduction in the two values both in the first three months and in the following three months. No major complication was recorded. Conclusion. The combination of platelet-rich plasma and hyaluronic acid can be effective in the treatment of grade II-III knee osteoarthritis in a short-to-mid-term scenario. It represents an innovative and valuable alternative to the administration of its two components alone.
The Effect of Vitamin D Supplementation for Bone Healing in Fracture Patients: A Systematic Review
While most literature on vitamin D supplementation in fracture patients focuses on fracture prevention, the effect of vitamin D on bone healing is a much less studied concept. The primary aim of this systematic review was to assess whether vitamin D supplementation in fracture patients improves clinical or radiological union complications. The secondary aims were to assess supplementation effect on patient functional outcome scores and bone mineral density (BMD). A systematic search of all relevant articles was performed using the following databases: MEDLINE, Embase, Google Scholar, and Web of Science. The population selection included human patients with a fresh fracture treated conservatively or operatively. The intervention included any form of vitamin D supplementation, compared to no supplementation or a placebo. The primary outcomes assessed were clinical or radiological union rates or complications arising from the nonunion. The secondary outcomes assessed were functional outcome scores, BMD scores after treatment, and pain scores. A total of fourteen studies, assessing a total of 2734 patients, were included. Eight studies assessed the effect of vitamin D on clinical or radiological union. Five studies reported no significant difference in complication rates when supplementing fracture patients. Alternatively, three studies reported a positive effect with supplementation between the groups. One of these studies found a difference only for early orthopaedic complications (<30 days), but no differences in late complications. The other two studies found significant differences in clinical union; however, no changes were observed in radiological union. Six studies investigated functional outcome scores after supplementation. Four of these studies found no significant differences between most functional outcome scores. Only three studies reported BMD outcomes, one of which found limited effect on total hip BMD. The overall findings are that vitamin D alone does little to influence fracture healing and subsequent union rates or functional outcome. The studies suggestive of a positive effect were generally of a lower quality. Further high quality RCTs are needed to justify routine supplementation at the time of fracture.
The Effect of Intrathecal Bupivacaine Plus Dextrose 5% and Fentanyl Compared with Bupivacaine Alone on the Onset and Duration of Analgesia in Patients Undergoing Lower-Limb Orthopedic Surgery
Introduction. This study aimed to compare the effect of intrathecal bupivacaine plus dextrose 5% and fentanyl with bupivacaine alone on the onset and duration of analgesia in patients undergoing lower-limb orthopedic surgery. Materials and Methods. A total of 40 patients eligible for lower-limb surgery were divided into two groups by simple randomization: the control group which received only bupivacaine and the intervention group which received bupivacaine plus dextrose 5% and fentanyl. Anesthesia was induced by the spinal method. The visual analog scale (VAS) was used to assess the patients’ pain; hemodynamic status (systolic and diastolic blood pressure and the heart rate) and oxygen saturation were also monitored. Results. There was a significant difference between groups in the type of lower-limb movement at the L1 anesthesia level, the sensory block level at time zero after surgery, the type of backward movement at time zero after surgery, and the analgesic dose received (). Fifteen and 30 minutes after the start of surgery, mean systolic blood pressure, and 45 and 60 minutes after the start of surgery, systolic and diastolic blood pressure and the heart rate were significantly lower in the control group than in the intervention group (). The VAS score was significantly lower in the intervention group than in the control group at 6 and 24 hours after surgery (). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure at time zero, systolic blood pressure at hour 6, and diastolic blood pressure at hour 24 after surgery were significantly lower in the control group than in the intervention group (). Conclusion. The mean duration of anesthesia and analgesia was significantly longer in patients receiving bupivacaine plus fentanyl than in those receiving bupivacaine alone. However, concerning hemodynamic parameters, it cannot be concluded that the bupivacaine plus fentanyl receiving group was generally superior to the bupivacaine receiving group.
Impact of Preoperative Quality of Life and Related Factors on the Development of Surgical Site Infections Following Primary Total Joint Arthroplasty: A Prospective Case-Control Study with a Five-Year Follow-Up
Introduction. As surgical site infections (SSIs) after joint arthroplasty contribute to increased morbidity and mortality, they require further surgical intervention, prolonged hospitalisation, and antimicrobial treatment. The aim of our study is to examine the association between preoperative quality of life (QoL) and other predictive factors on the development of SSIs after primary arthroplasty. Methods. This is a prospective study that enrolled 56 patients with hip and knee primary osteoarthritis who underwent joint replacement. Data were collected from January to March 2017, including patient demographic characteristics, comorbidities, laboratory results, and perioperative clinical data. The patients’ QoL was evaluated preoperatively by applying the knee injury and osteoarthritis outcome score (KOOS) and the hip disability and osteoarthritis outcome score (HOOS) for total knee replacement (TKR) and total hip replacement (THR), respectively. A 5-year follow-up was conducted to assess the clinical status of the patients. Results. 66.1% of patients underwent TKR, with 4.9 ± 1.2 days of hospitalisation, 16% of them required autologous blood transfusion, while 33.9% of patients were treated with THR, with 5.7 ± 1 days hospitalisation and 36.8 of them required this type of transfusion. 16 patients were diagnosed with SSIs, with the older of them (>65 years old) presenting lower probability (odds ratio: 0.13, 95% CI: 0.03–0.62) requiring treatment with additional antibiotics, while revision surgery was performed in 3 of these cases, following periprosthetic joint infection (PJI). Overall preoperative QoL was not statistically associated with SSIs, but low QoL scores were associated with higher rates of SSIs and increased levels of postoperative pain ( = 0.009 < 0.05). Conclusions. The duration of each operation (>90 min), the length of hospitalisation (>4 days), and the presence of comorbidities including hypothyroidism and recurrent urinary tract infections were associated with a high risk for SSIs following arthroplasties. On the contrary, this study revealed no association between other comorbidities, including heart coronary disease, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus, with close monitoring of plasma glucose and SSIs. Moreover, the younger the patients, the more likely they were to require treatment with antibiotics. Overall, high QoL index scores were mainly accompanied by low rates of postoperative SSIs and pain.
Injection of a Bone Substitute in the Treatment of Unicameral Bone Cysts
Background. Simple bone cysts are benign bony lesions. Treatment strategies are varied for this particular pathology. It remains controversial as to what the ideal treatment strategy is. Recently, bony substitute injections have emerged as a potential option for treatment. This paper aimed to describe our institution’s experience in using bony substitute injections to treat unicameral bone cysts. Methods. A retrospective review of consecutive patients over an 84-month period at a tertiary paediatric hospital was performed. Information regarding patients’ presentation, diagnosis, and management was recorded and summarised. Results. A total of 15 patients were included in our study, with a mean follow-up of 118 weeks. 86.7% of patients demonstrated clinical resolution (absence of pain at the latest follow-up) and 80% of patients demonstrated radiographic resolution. Only one patient sustained a subtrochanteric fracture post-index operation, whilst two others demonstrated redevelopment of cystic architecture on follow-up. Conclusion. This study demonstrates that bone substitute injection is potentially a minimally invasive and seemingly successful technique in the treatment of unicameral bone cysts and other simple bone lesions. Further randomised and comparative studies are required to confirm and validate our findings.