Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Advances in Orthopedics
Volume 2012, Article ID 282068, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/282068
Clinical Study

Lateral Interbody Fusion for Treatment of Discogenic Low Back Pain: Minimally Invasive Surgical Techniques

1Instituto de Patologia da Coluna, São Paulo 04101-000, SP, Brazil
2Department of Imaging Diagnosis, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo 04024-002, SP, Brazil
3Department of Neurosurgery, University of California, San Diego, CA 92103-8893, USA

Received 30 November 2011; Accepted 3 February 2012

Academic Editor: Brian R. Subach

Copyright © 2012 Luis Marchi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. S. D. Boden, D. O. Davis, T. S. Dina, N. J. Patronas, and S. W. Wiesel, “Abnormal magnetic-resonance scans of the lumbar spine in asymptomatic subjects. A prospective investigation,” Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery A, vol. 72, no. 3, pp. 403–408, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. K. Luoma, H. Riihimäki, R. Luukkonen, R. Raininko, E. Viikari-Juntura, and A. Lamminen, “Low back pain in relation to lumbar disc degeneration,” Spine, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 487–492, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. L. Manchikanti, S. Datta, R. Derby, L. R. Wolfer, R. M. Benyamin, and J. A. Hirsch, “A critical review of the American pain society clinical practice guidelines for interventional techniques: part 1. Diagnostic interventions,” Pain Physician, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. E141–E174, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. D. K. Resnick, T. F. Choudhri, A. T. Dailey et al., “Guidelines for the performance of fusion procedures for degenerative disease of the lumbar spine. Part 17: bone growth stimulators and lumbar fusion,” Journal of Neurosurgery, vol. 2, no. 6, pp. 737–740, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. J. N. A. Gibson and G. Waddell, “Surgery for degenerative lumbar spondylosis: updated Cochrane review,” Spine, vol. 30, no. 20, pp. 2312–2320, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. T. Ibrahim, I. M. Tleyjeh, and O. Gabbar, “Surgical versus non-surgical treatment of chronic low back pain: a meta-analysis of randomised trials,” International Orthopaedics, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 107–113, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. L. Y. Carreon, S. D. Glassman, and J. Howard, “Fusion and nonsurgical treatment for symptomatic lumbar degenerative disease: a systematic review of oswestry disability index and MOS short form-36 outcomes,” Spine Journal, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 747–755, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. R. Chou, J. Baisden, E. J. Carragee, D. K. Resnick, W. O. Shaffer, and J. D. Loeser, “Surgery for low back pain: a review of the evidence for an American pain society clinical practice guideline,” Spine, vol. 34, no. 10, pp. 1094–1109, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. Y. G. Zhang, T. M. Guo, X. Guo, and S. X. Wu, “Clinical diagnosis for discogenic low back pain,” International Journal of Biological Sciences, vol. 5, no. 7, pp. 647–658, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. C. W. Pfirrmann, A. Metzdorf, M. Zanetti, J. Hodler, and N. Boos, “Magnetic resonance classification of lumbar intervertebral disc degeneration,” Spine, vol. 26, no. 17, pp. 1873–1878, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. V. Amaral, L. Marchi, L. Oliveira, and L. Pimenta, “Prevalence and relationship of emotional and clinical factors in patients with degenerative disc disease,” Coluna/Columna, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 150–156, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. B. M. Ozgur, H. E. Aryan, L. Pimenta, and W. R. Taylor, “Extreme lateral interbody fusion (XLIF): a novel surgical technique for anterior lumbar interbody fusion,” The Spine Journal, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 435–443, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. J. P. Grant, T. R. Oxland, and M. F. Dvorak, “Mapping the structural properties of the lumbosacral vertebral endplates,” Spine, vol. 26, no. 8, pp. 889–896, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. M. J. Voor, S. Mehta, M. Wang, Y. M. Zhang, J. Mahan, and J. R. Johnson, “Biomechanical evaluation of posterior and anterior lumbar interbody fusion techniques,” Journal of Spinal Disorders, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 328–334, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. F. L. Acosta, J. Liu, N. Slimack, D. Moller, R. Fessler, and T. Koski, “Changes in coronal and sagittal plane alignment following minimally invasive direct lateral interbody fusion for the treatment of degenerative lumbar disease in adults: a radiographic study,” Journal of Neurosurgery, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 92–96, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  16. E. Dakwar, R. F. Cardona, D. A. Smith, and J. S. Uribe, “Early outcomes and safety of the minimally invasive, lateral retroperitoneal transpsoas approach for adult degenerative scoliosis,” Neurosurgical Focus, vol. 28, no. 3, p. E8, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. R. E. Isaacs, J. Hyde, J. A. Goodrich, W. B. Rodgers, and F. M. Phillips, “A prospective, nonrandomized, multicenter evaluation of extreme lateral interbody fusion for the treatment of adult degenerative scoliosis: perioperative outcomes and complications,” Spine, vol. 35, no. 26, supplement, pp. S322–S330, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. G. M. Mundis, B. A. Akbarnia, and F. M. Phillips, “Adult deformity correction through minimally invasive lateral approach techniques,” Spine, vol. 35, no. 26, supplement, pp. S312–S321, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. L. Oliveira, L. Marchi, E. Coutinho, and L. Pimenta, “A radiographic assessment of the ability of the extreme lateral interbody fusion procedure to indirectly decompress the neural elements,” Spine, vol. 35, no. 26, supplement, pp. S331–S337, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. P. J. Roughley, “Biology of intervertebral disc aging and degeneration: involvement of the extracellular matrix,” Spine, vol. 29, no. 23, pp. 2691–2699, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. N. Boos, S. Weissbach, H. Rohrbach, C. Weiler, K. F. Spratt, and A. G. Nerlich, “Classification of age-related changes in lumbar intervertebral discs: 2002 Volvo award in basic science,” Spine, vol. 27, no. 23, pp. 2631–2644, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. J. A. A. Miller, C. Schmatz, and A. B. Schultz, “Lumbar disc degeneration: correlation with age, sex, and spine level in 600 autopsy specimens,” Spine, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 173–178, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. M. Haefeli, F. Kalberer, D. Saegesser, A. G. Nerlich, N. Boos, and G. Paesold, “The course of macroscopic degeneration in the human lumbar intervertebral disc,” Spine, vol. 31, no. 14, pp. 1522–1531, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. J. P. G. Urban, S. Smith, and J. C. T. Fairbank, “Nutrition of the intervertebral disc,” Spine, vol. 29, no. 23, pp. 2700–2709, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. M. A. Adams, D. W. McMillan, T. P. Green, and P. Dolan, “Sustained loading generates stress concentrations in lumbar intervertebral discs,” Spine, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 434–438, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. I. A. F. Stokes and J. C. Iatridis, “Mechanical conditions that accelerate intervertebral disc degeneration: overload versus immobilization,” Spine, vol. 29, no. 23, pp. 2724–2732, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. J. García-Cosamalón, M. E. del Valle, M. G. Calavia et al., “Intervertebral disc, sensory nerves and neurotrophins: who is who in discogenic pain?” Journal of Anatomy, vol. 217, no. 1, pp. 1–15, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. B. Peng, W. Wu, S. Hou, P. Li, C. Zhang, and Y. Yang, “The pathogenesis of discogenic low back pain,” Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery B, vol. 87, no. 1, pp. 62–67, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. Y. Aoki, S. Ohtori, K. Takahashi et al., “Innervation of the lumbar intervertebral disc by nerve growth factor-dependent neurons related to inflammatory pain,” Spine, vol. 29, no. 10, pp. 1077–1081, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. Y. Aoki, S. Ohtori, H. Ino et al., “Disc inflammation potentially promotes axonal regeneration of dorsal root ganglion neurons innervating lumbar intervertebral disc in rats,” Spine, vol. 29, no. 23, pp. 2621–2626, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. A. J. Freemont, T. E. Peacock, P. Goupille, J. A. Hoyland, J. O'Brien, and M. I. V. Jayson, “Nerve ingrowth into diseased intervertebral disc in chronic back pain,” The Lancet, vol. 350, no. 9072, pp. 178–181, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. T. Ozawa, S. Ohtori, G. Inoue, Y. Aoki, H. Moriya, and K. Takahashi, “The degenerated lumbar intervertebral disc is innervated primarily by peptide-containing sensory nerve fibers in humans,” Spine, vol. 31, no. 21, pp. 2418–2422, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. J. G. Burke, R. W. G. Watson, D. McCormack, F. E. Dowling, M. G. Walsh, and J. M. Fitzpatrick, “Intervertebral discs which cause low back pain secrete high levels of proinflammatory mediators,” Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery B, vol. 84, no. 2, pp. 196–201, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. A. M. Alqarni, A. G. Schneiders, and P. A. Hendrick, “Clinical tests to diagnose lumbar segmental instability: a systematic review,” Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy, vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 130–140, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  35. A. Leone, V. N. Cassar-Pullicino, G. Guglielmi, and L. Bonomo, “Degenerative lumbar intervertebral instability: what is it and how does imaging contribute?” Skeletal Radiology, vol. 38, no. 6, pp. 529–533, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. M. Wassenaar, R. M. Rijn, M. W. Tulder et al., “Magnetic resonance imaging for diagnosing lumbar spinal pathology in adult patients with low back pain or sciatica: a diagnostic systematic review,” European Spine Journal, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 220–227, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  37. M. S. DeBerard, R. A. LaCaille, G. Spielmans, A. Colledge, and M. A. Parlin, “Outcomes and presurgery correlates of lumbar discectomy in Utah Workers' compensation patients,” Spine Journal, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 193–203, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. J. D. Lurie, S. H. Berven, J. Gibson-Chambers et al., “Patient preferences and expectations for care: determinants in patients with lumbar intervertebral disc herniation,” Spine, vol. 33, no. 24, pp. 2663–2668, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. J. E. Moore, “Chronic low back pain and psychosocial issues,” Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 801–815, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. Y. Aoki, Y. Takahashi, K. Takahashi et al., “Sensory innervation of the portion of the lumbar intervertebral disc in rats,” Spine Journal, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 275–280, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. P. P. Raj, “Intervertebral disc: anatomy-physiology-pathophysiology-treatment,” Pain Practice, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 18–44, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. H. Sameda, Y. Takahashi, K. Takahashi et al., “Dorsal root ganglion neurones with dichotomising afferent fibres to both the lumbar disc and the groin skin. A possible neuronal mechanism underlying referred groin pain in lower lumbar disc diseases,” Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, vol. 85, no. 4, pp. 600–603, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  43. R. Rahme and R. Moussa, “The modic vertebral endplate and marrow changes: pathologic significance and relation to low back pain and segmental instability of the lumbar spine,” American Journal of Neuroradiology, vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 838–842, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. C.-H. Lim, W.-H. Jee, C.-S. Byung, D.-H. Kim, K.-Y. Ha, and C.-K. Park, “Discogenic lumbar pain: association with MR imaging and CT discography,” European Journal of Radiology, vol. 54, no. 3, pp. 431–437, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. E. J. Carragee, C. M. Tanner, S. Khurana et al., “The rates of false-positive lumbar discography in select patients without low back symptoms,” Spine, vol. 25, no. 11, pp. 1373–1380, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. E. J. Carragee, T. F. Alamin, and J. M. Carragee, “Low-pressure positive discography in subjects asymptomatic of significant low back pain illness,” Spine, vol. 31, no. 5, pp. 505–509, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. E. J. Carragee, A. S. Don, E. L. Hurwitz, J. M. Cuellar, J. Carrino, and R. Herzog, “2009 ISSLS prize winner: does discography cause accelerated progression of degeneration changes in the lumbar disc: a ten-year matched cohort study,” Spine, vol. 34, no. 21, pp. 2338–2345, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. E. M. Lindley, S. Jaafar, A. Noshchenko et al., “Nucleus replacement device failure: a case report and biomechanical study,” Spine, vol. 35, no. 22, pp. E1241–E1247, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. R. Bertagnoli and R. Schönmayr, “Surgical and clinical results with the PDN prosthetic disc-nucleus device,” European Spine Journal, vol. 11, supplement 2, no. 2, pp. S143–S148, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. P. Klara and C. D. Ray, “Artificial nucleus replacement: clinical experience,” Spine, vol. 27, no. 17, p. 1949, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. L. Oliveira, L. Marchi, E. Coutinho, and L. Pimenta, “A long-term clinical experience with three different nucleus replacement devices—lessons learned after 9-years follow-up,” The Spine Journal, vol. 10, no. 9, supplement, p. S135, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  52. L. Pimenta, L. Marchi, E. Coutinho, and L. Oliveira, “Lessons learned after 9 years clinical experience with three different nucleus replacement devices,” Seminars in Spine Surgery, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 43–47, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  53. J. E. McGrory and R. D. Guyer, “Lumbar fusion: a defensible option for discogenic low back pain?” Seminars in Spine Surgery, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 227–234, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  54. J. Fairbank, H. Frost, J. Wilson-MacDonald, L. M. Yu, K. Barker, and R. Collins, “Randomised controlled trial to compare surgical stabilisation of the lumbar spine with an intensive rehabilitation programme for patients with chronic low back pain: the MRC spine stabilisation trial,” British Medical Journal, vol. 330, no. 7502, pp. 1233–1239, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. P. Fritzell, O. Hägg, P. Wessberg, and A. Nordwall, “2001 Volvo award winner in clinical studies: lumbar fusion versus nonsurgical treatment for chronic low back pain. A multicenter randomized controlled trial from the Swedish lumbar Spine study group,” Spine, vol. 26, no. 23, pp. 2521–2532, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. S. Ohtori, T. Kinoshita, M. Yamashita et al., “Results of surgery for discogenic low back pain: a randomized study using discography versus discoblock for diagnosis,” Spine, vol. 34, no. 13, pp. 1345–1348, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. J. I. Brox, R. Sørensen, A. Friis et al., “Randomized clinical trial of lumbar instrumented fusion and cognitive intervention and exercises in patients with chronic low back pain and disc degeneration,” Spine, vol. 28, no. 17, pp. 1913–1921, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. C. R. Weatherley, C. F. Prickett, and J. P. O'Brien, “Discogenic pain persisting despite solid posterior fusion,” Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery B, vol. 68, no. 1, pp. 142–143, 1986. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. W. T. Barrick, J. A. Schofferman, J. B. Reynolds et al., “Anterior lumbar fusion improves discogenic pain at levels of prior posterolateral fusion,” Spine, vol. 25, no. 7, pp. 853–857, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. R. Amaral, L. Marchi, L. Oliveira et al., “Minimally invasive lateral alternative for thoracolumbar interbody fusion,” Coluna/Columna, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 239–243, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  61. L. Marchi, N. Abdala, L. Oliveira, R. Amaral, E. Coutinho, and L. Pimenta, “Stand-alone lateral interbody fusion for the treatment of low-grade degenerative spondylolisthesis,” The Scientific World Journal. In press.
  62. L. Marchi, L. Oliveira, R. Amaral et al., “Anterior elongation as a minimally invasive alternative for sagittal imbalance—a case series,” HSS Journal. In press. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  63. R. E. Isaacs, J. Hyde, J. A. Goodrich, W. B. Rodgers, and F. M. Phillips, “A prospective, nonrandomized, multicenter evaluation of extreme lateral interbody fusion for the treatment of adult degenerative scoliosis: perioperative outcomes and complications,” Spine, vol. 35, no. 26, supplement, pp. S322–S330, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. W. B. Rodgers, E. J. Gerber, and J. Patterson, “Intraoperative and early postoperative complications in extreme lateral interbody fusion: an analysis of 600 cases,” Spine, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 26–32, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  65. J. Billinghurst and B. A. Akbarnia, “Extreme lateral interbody fusion—XLIF,” Current Orthopaedic Practice, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 238–251, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. L. Oliveira, L. Marchi, E. Coutinho, N. Abdala, and L. Pimenta, “The use of rh-BMP2 in standalone eXtreme lateral interbody fusion (XLIF): clinical and radiological results after 24 months follow-up,” World Spinal Column Journal, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 19–25, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  67. J. S. Uribe, E. Dakwar, T. V. Le, G. Christian, S. Serrano, and W. D. Smith, “Minimally invasive surgery treatment for thoracic spine tumor removal: a mini-open, lateral approach,” Spine, vol. 35, no. 26, supplement, pp. S347–S354, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. W. D. Smith, E. Dakwar, T. V. Le, G. Christian, S. Serrano, and J. S. Uribe, “Minimally invasive surgery for traumatic spinal pathologies: a mini-open, lateral approach in the thoracic and lumbar spine,” Spine, vol. 35, no. 26, supplement, pp. S338–S346, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. J. Uribe, W. Smith, and L. Pimenta, “Minimally invasive lateral approach for symptomatic thoracic disc herniation: initial multi-center clinical experience,” Journal of Neurosurgery, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 264–279, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  70. B. M. Ozgur, V. Agarwal, E. Nail, and L. Pimenta, “Two-year clinical and radiographic success of minimally invasive lateral transpsoas approach for the treatment of degenerative lumbar conditions,” SAS Journal, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 41–46, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. A. Cappuccino, G. B. Cornwall, A. W. L. Turner et al., “Biomechanical analysis and review of lateral lumbar fusion constructs,” Spine, vol. 35, no. 26, supplement, pp. S361–S367, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. L. Oliveira, L. Marchi, E. Coutinho, and L. Pimenta, “The subsidence rate in XLIF osteoporotic patients in standalone procedures,” The Spine Journal, vol. 10, supplement, no. 9, pp. S51–S52, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  73. J. Fairbank, H. Frost, J. Wilson-MacDonald, L. M. Yu, K. Barker, and R. Collins, “Randomised controlled trial to compare surgical stabilisation of the lumbar spine with an intensive rehabilitation programme for patients with chronic low back pain: the MRC spine stabilisation trial,” British Medical Journal, vol. 330, no. 7502, pp. 1233–1239, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. J. K. Burkus, S. E. Heim, M. F. Gornet, and T. A. Zdeblick, “Is INFUSE bone graft superior to autograft bone? An integrated analysis of clinical trials using the LT-CAGE lumbar tapered fusion device,” Journal of Spinal Disorders and Techniques, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 113–122, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. A. G. Kasis, L. A. G. Marshman, M. Krishna, and C. K. Bhatia, “Significantly improved outcomes with a less invasive posterior lumbar interbody fusion incorporating total facetectomy,” Spine, vol. 34, no. 6, pp. 572–577, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. J. D. Schwender, L. T. Holly, D. P. Rouben, and K. T. Foley, “Minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF): technical feasibility and initial results,” Journal of Spinal Disorders and Techniques, vol. 18, no. 1, supplement, pp. S1–S6, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus