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Advances in Orthopedics
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 802350, 10 pages
Research Article

Measurement of Intervertebral Motion Using Quantitative Fluoroscopy: Report of an International Forum and Proposal for Use in the Assessment of Degenerative Disc Disease in the Lumbar Spine

1Institute for Musculoskeletal Research and Clinical Implementation, Anglo-European College of Chiropractic, 13-15 Parkwood Road, Bournemouth BH5 2DF, UK
2Fort Sam Houston, US Army-Baylor University, San Antonio, TX 78234, USA
3Faculty of Science & Technology, Technological and Higher Education Institute of Hong Kong, Hong Kong
4Ortho Kinematics Inc., 1704 Bee Caves Road, Building 3, Suite 315, Austin, TX 78746, USA

Received 24 October 2011; Accepted 26 January 2012

Academic Editor: Brian R. Subach

Copyright © 2012 Alan C. Breen et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Quantitative fluoroscopy (QF) is an emerging technology for measuring intervertebral motion patterns to investigate problem back pain and degenerative disc disease. This International Forum was a networking event of three research groups (UK, US, Hong Kong), over three days in San Francisco in August 2009. Its aim was to reach a consensus on how best to record, analyse, and communicate QF information for research and clinical purposes. The Forum recommended that images should be acquired during regular trunk motion that is controlled for velocity and range, in order to minimise externally imposed variability as well as to correlate intervertebral motion with trunk motion. This should be done in both the recumbent passive and weight bearing active patient configurations. The main recommended outputs from QF were the true ranges of intervertebral rotation and translation, neutral zone laxity and the consistency of shape of the motion patterns. The main clinical research priority should initially be to investigate the possibility of mechanical subgroups of patients with chronic, nonspecific low back pain by comparing their intervertebral motion patterns with those of matched healthy controls.