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Advances in Orthopedics
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 391260, 4 pages
Research Article

Obtaining Glenoid Positioning Data from Scapular Palpable Points In Vitro

Department of Physical Therapy (MC 898), University of Illinois at Chicago, 1919 W. Taylor Street, Chicago, IL 60612, USA

Received 23 January 2013; Revised 20 March 2013; Accepted 21 March 2013

Academic Editor: Christian Bach

Copyright © 2013 Jordan H. Trafimow and Alexander S. Aruin. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Both clinical and biomechanical problems affecting the shoulder joint suggest that investigators should study force transmission into and out from the scapula. To analyze force transmission between the humeral head and the glenoid, one must know the position of the glenoid. Studies have analyzed the position of the scapula from the positions of three palpable points, but the position of the glenoid relative to three palpable points has not been studied. Dry scapulae ( ) were subjected to X-rays and a critical angle, (which relates the plane determined by the three palpable points on the scapula to a plane containing the glenoid center and the first two palpable points) was calculated. The mean value for was degrees. The obtained allows us to determine the position of the glenoid from three palpable points. This information could be used in calculation of forces across the shoulder joint, which in turn would allow optimizing the choice of strengthening exercises.