Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Advances in Orthopedics
Volume 2014, Article ID 359689, 5 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/359689
Research Article

The Reliability of Classifications of Proximal Femoral Fractures with 3-Dimensional Computed Tomography: The New Concept of Comprehensive Classification

1Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Akita University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1-1 Hondo, Akita 010-8543, Japan
2Akita Hip Research Group, Akita 010-8543, Japan

Received 20 October 2014; Accepted 13 December 2014; Published 25 December 2014

Academic Editor: Panagiotis Korovessis

Copyright © 2014 Hiroaki Kijima et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. M. R. Karagas, G. L. Lu-Yao, J. A. Barrett, M. L. Beach, and J. A. Baron, “Heterogeneity of hip fracture: age, race, sex, and geographic patterns of femoral neck and trochanteric fractures among the US elderly,” American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 143, no. 7, pp. 677–682, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. K. Bjorgul and O. Reikeras, “Incidence of hip fracture in south eastern Norway: a study of 1730 cervical and trochanteric fractures,” International Orthopaedics, vol. 31, no. 5, pp. 665–669, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  3. A. Johansen, R. Wakeman, C. Boulton, F. Plant, J. Roberts, and A. Williams, National Hip Fracture Database: National Report 2013, Royal College of Physicians, London, UK, 2013.
  4. J. M. Queally, E. Harris, H. H. Handoll, and M. J. Parker, “Intramedullary nails for extracapsular hip fractures in adults,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, vol. 9, Article ID CD004961, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  5. M. Kraus, G. Krischak, K. Wiedmann et al., “Clinical evaluation of PFNA and relationship between the tip-apex distance and mechanical failure,” Unfallchirurg, vol. 114, no. 6, pp. 470–478, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. P. Mereddy, S. Kamath, M. Ramakrishnan, H. Malik, and N. Donnachie, “The AO/ASIF proximal femoral nail antirotation (PFNA): a new design for the treatment of unstable proximal femoral fractures,” Injury, vol. 40, no. 4, pp. 428–432, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. M. Muhm, H. Hillenbrand, T. Danko, C. Weiss, T. Ruffing, and H. Winkler, “Frühkomplikationsrate bei hüftgelenknahen Frakturen,” Der Unfallchirurg, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  8. F. Bonnaire, A. Weber, O. Bösl, C. Eckhardt, K. Schwieger, and B. Linke, ““Cutting out” in pertrochanteric fractures—problem of osteoporosis?” Unfallchirurg, vol. 110, no. 5, pp. 425–432, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. A. J. Bojan, C. Beimel, G. Taglang, D. Collin, C. Ekholm, and A. Jönsson, “Critical factors in cut-out complication after gamma nail treatment of proximal femoral fractures,” BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, vol. 14, article 1, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. K.-K. Hsueh, C.-K. Fang, C.-M. Chen, Y.-P. Su, H.-F. Wu, and F.-Y. Chiu, “Risk factors in cutout of sliding hip screw in intertrochanteric fractures: an evaluation of 937 patients,” International Orthopaedics, vol. 34, no. 8, pp. 1273–1276, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. A. A. Al-Munajjed, J. Hammer, E. Mayr, M. Nerlich, and A. Lenich, “Biomechanical characterisation of osteosyntheses for proximal femur fractures: helical blade versus screw,” Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, vol. 133, pp. 1–10, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. M. E. Muller, “Appendix A. The comprehensive classification of fractures of long bones,” in Manual of Internal Fixation: Techniques Recommended by the AO-ASIF Group, M. Allgower, Ed., pp. 118–150, Springer, Berlin, Germany, 3rd edition, 1991. View at Google Scholar
  13. R. S. Garden, “Low-angle fixation in fractures of the femoral neck,” The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery. British Volume, vol. 43, pp. 647–663, 1961. View at Google Scholar
  14. F. Pauwels, Der schenkelhalsbruch: Ein mechanisches Problem, F. Enke, Stuttgart, Germany, 1935.
  15. T. Nakano, “Understanding of femoral trochanteric fracture in aged and the suggestion of classification with 3DCT,” Monthly Book Orthopaedics, vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 39–45, 2006 (Japanese). View at Google Scholar
  16. C. M. Blundell, M. J. Parker, G. A. Pryor, J. Hopkinson-Woolley, and S. S. Bhonsle, “Assessment of the AO classification of intracapsular fractures of the proximal femur,” Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, vol. 80, no. 4, pp. 679–683, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. K. Bjørgul and O. Reikerås, “Low interobserver reliability of radiographic signs predicting healing disturbance in displaced intracapsular fracture of the femoral neck,” Acta Orthopaedica Scandinavica, vol. 73, no. 3, pp. 307–310, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. N. O. B. Thomsen, C. M. Jensen, N. Skovgaard et al., “Observer variation in the radiographic classification of fractures of the neck of the femur using Garden's system,” International Orthopaedics, vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 326–329, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. E. Andersen, L. G. Jorgensen, and L. T. Hededam, “Evans' classification of trochanteric fractures: an assessment of the interobserver and intraobserver reliability,” Injury, vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 377–378, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. P. M. Gehrchen, J. O. Nielsen, and B. Olesen, “Poor reproducibility of Evans' classification of the trochanteric fracture: assessment of 4 observers in 52 cases,” Acta Orthopaedica Scandinavica, vol. 64, no. 1, pp. 71–72, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. E. M. Evans, “The treatment of trochanteric fractures of the femur,” The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery. British Volume, vol. 31, pp. 190–203, 1949. View at Google Scholar
  22. S. Siegel and N. J. Castellan Jr., Nonparametric Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, McGraw-Hill, 2nd edition, 1988.