Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Advances in Orthopedics
Volume 2014, Article ID 640952, 13 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/640952
Review Article

Management of Humeral and Glenoid Bone Loss in Recurrent Glenohumeral Instability

1Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Rush University Medical Center, Suite 300, 1611 West Harrison Street, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
2Sunnybrook Hospital, University of Toronto, Room 508-A, 149 College Street, Toronto, ON, Canada M5T 1P5
3Pan Am Clinic, 75 Poseidon Bay, Winnipeg, MB, Canada R3M 3E4
4Toronto Western Hospital and Women’s College Hospital, University of Toronto, 76 Grenville Street, Toronto, ON, Canada M5S 1B1
5Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Manitoba, 66 Chancellors Cir, Winnipeg, MB, Canada R3T 2N2

Received 8 April 2014; Accepted 8 July 2014; Published 17 July 2014

Academic Editor: Allen L. Carl

Copyright © 2014 Randy Mascarenhas et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. L. Hovelius, B. G. Augustini, H. Fredin, O. Johansson, R. Norlin, and J. Thorling, “Primary anterior dislocation of the shoulder in young patients: a ten-year prospective study,” Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery A, vol. 78, no. 11, pp. 1677–1684, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. A. J. Bois, R. E. Walker, P. Kodali, and A. Miniaci, “Imaging instability in the athlete: the right modality for the right diagnosis,” Clinics in Sports Medicine, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 653–684, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  3. U. G. Longo, M. Loppini, G. Rizzello, G. Romeo, P. E. Huijsmans, and V. Denaro, “Glenoid and humeral head bone loss in traumatic anterior glenohumeral instability: a systematic review,” Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 392–414, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. M. Bahk, E. Keyurapan, A. Tasaki, E. L. Sauers, and E. G. McFarland, “Laxity testing of the shoulder: a review,” American Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 131–144, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. A. M. Halder, S. G. Kuhl, M. E. Zobitz, D. Larson, and K. N. An, “Effects of the glenoid labrum and glenohumeral abduction on stability of the shoulder joint through concavity-compression: an in vitro study,” Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, vol. 83, no. 7, pp. 1062–1069, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. S. B. Lippitt, J. E. Vanderhooft, S. L. Harris, J. A. Sidles, D. T. Harryman II, and F. A. Matsen III, “Glenohumeral stability from concavity-compression: a quantitative analysis,” Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 27–35, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  7. J. J. P. Warner, M. K. Bowen, X. Deng, J. A. Hannafin, S. P. Arnoczky, and R. F. Warren, “Articular contact patterns of the normal glenohumeral joint,” Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 381–388, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. S. M. Howell and B. J. Galinat, “The glenoid labral socket. A constrained articular surface,” Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, no. 243, pp. 122–125, 1989. View at Google Scholar
  9. R. Lugo, P. Kung, and C. B. Ma, “Shoulder biomechanics,” European Journal of Radiology, vol. 68, no. 1, pp. 16–24, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. H. Saito, E. Itoi, H. Sugaya, H. Minagawa, N. Yamamoto, and Y. Tuoheti, “Location of the glenoid defect in shoulders with recurrent anterior dislocation,” American Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. 33, no. 6, pp. 889–893, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. J. A. Abboud and L. J. Soslowsky, “Interplay of the static and dynamic restraints in glenohumeral instability,” Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, no. 400, pp. 48–57, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. A. M. Halder, E. Itoi, and K. An, “Anatomy and biomechanics of the shoulder,” Orthopedic Clinics of North America, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 159–176, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. M. J. Pagnani, X. H. Deng, R. F. Warren, P. A. Torzilli, and S. J. O'Brien, “Role of the long head of the biceps brachii in glenohumeral stability: a biomechanical study in cadavera.,” Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 255–262, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. C. R. Rowe and B. Zarins, “Recurrent transient subluxation of the shoulder,” Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery A, vol. 63, no. 6, pp. 863–872, 1981. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. F. W. Jobe and R. S. Kvitne, “Shoulder pain in the overhand or throwing athlete. The relationship of anterior instability and rotator cuff impingement,” Orthopaedic Review, vol. 18, no. 9, pp. 963–975, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. O. J. Gagey and N. Gagey, “The hyperabduction test,” Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery B, vol. 83, no. 1, pp. 69–74, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. C. S. Neer II and C. R. Foster, “Inferior capsular shift for involuntary inferior and multidirectional instability of the shoulder. A preliminary report,” Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery A, vol. 62, no. 6, pp. 897–908, 1980. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. S.-H. Kim, J.-C. Park, J.-S. Park, and I. Oh, “Painful jerk test: a predictor of success in nonoperative treatment of posteroinferior instability of the shoulder,” The American Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. 32, no. 8, pp. 1849–1855, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. J. C. Adams, “Recurrent dislocation of the shoulder.,” The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 26–38, 1948. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. W. P. Garth Jr., C. E. Slappey, and C. W. Ochs, “Roentgenographic demonstration of instability of the shoulder: the apical oblique projection. A technical note,” Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery A, vol. 66, no. 9, pp. 1450–1453, 1984. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. M. B. Strauss, “The shoulder- roentgenographical evaluation of recurrent anterior instability,” in Fractures, C. A. Rockwood Jr. and D. P. Green, Eds., p. 646, JB Lippincott, Philadelphia, Pa, USA, 1975. View at Google Scholar
  22. L. A. Danzig, G. Greenway, and D. Resnick, “The Hill-Sachs lesion. An experimental study,” The American Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 328–332, 1980. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. H. Sugaya, J. Moriishi, M. Dohi, Y. Kon, and A. Tsuchiya, “Glenoid rim morphology in recurrent anterior glenohumeral instability,” Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery A, vol. 85, no. 5, pp. 878–884, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. I. K. Y. Lo, P. M. Parten, and S. S. Burkhart, “The inverted pear glenoid : an indicator of significant glenoid bone loss,” Arthroscopy, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 169–174, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. M. S. Armitage, K. J. Faber, D. S. Drosdowech, R. B. Litchfield, and G. S. Athwal, “Humeral head bone defects: remplissage, allograft, and arthroplasty,” Orthopedic Clinics of North America, vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 417–425, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. H. Saito, E. Itoi, H. Minagawa, N. Yamamoto, Y. Tuoheti, and N. Seki, “Location of the Hill-Sachs lesion in shoulders with recurrent anterior dislocation,” Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery, vol. 129, no. 10, pp. 1327–1334, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. A. L. Chen, S. A. Hunt, and J. D. Zuckerman, “Humeral head impression fractures and head-splitting fractures,” in Shoulder Fractures: The Practical Guide to Management, J. D. Zuckerman and K. J. Koval, Eds., pp. 120–143, Thieme, New York, NY, USA, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  28. N. Čičak, R. Bilić, and D. Delimar, “Hill-Sachs lesion in recurrent shoulder dislocation: sonographic detection,” Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine, vol. 17, no. 9, pp. 557–560, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. S. G. Kaar, S. D. Fening, M. H. Jones, R. W. Colbrunn, and A. Miniaci, “Effect of humeral head defect size on glenohumeral stability: a cadaveric study of simulated Hill-Sachs defects,” The American Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 594–599, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. D. P. Piasecki, N. N. Verma, A. A. Romeo, W. N. Levine, B. R. Bach, and M. T. Provencher, “Glenoid bone deficiency in recurrent anterior shoulder instability: diagnosis and management,” Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, vol. 17, no. 8, pp. 482–493, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. M. D. Kazel, J. K. Sekiya, J. A. Greene, and C. T. Bruker, “Percutaneous correction (humeroplasty) of humeral head defects (Hill-Sachs) associated with anterior shoulder instability: a cadaveric study,” Arthroscopy, vol. 21, no. 12, pp. 1473–1478, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. P . Re, R. A. Gallo, and J. C. Richmond, “Transhumeral head plasty for large Hill-Sachs lesions,” Arthroscopy, vol. 22, no. 7, pp. 798.e1–798.e4, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  33. D. T. Sahajpal and J. D. Zuckerman, “Chronic glenohumeral dislocation,” Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, vol. 16, no. 7, pp. 385–398, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. B. G. Weber, “Operative treatment for recurrent dislocation of the shoulder. Preliminary report,” Injury, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 107–109, 1969. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. R. J. Purchase, E. M. Wolf, E. R. Hobgood, M. E. Pollock, and C. C. Smalley, “Hill-Sachs “remplissage”: an arthroscopic solution for the engaging Hill-Sachs lesion,” Arthroscopy, vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 723–726, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. H. L. McLaughlin, “Posterior dislocation of the shoulder,” The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, vol. 34, pp. 584–590, 1952. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. R. J. Hawkins, C. S. Neer II, R. M. Pianta, and F. X. Mendoza, “Locked posterior dislocation of the shoulder,” Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery A, vol. 69, no. 1, pp. 9–18, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. K. Yagishita and B. J. Thomas, “Use of allograft for large Hill-Sachs lesion associated with anterior glenohumeral dislocation—a case report,” Injury, vol. 33, no. 9, pp. 791–794, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. C. Gerber and S. M. Lambert, “Allograft reconstruction of segmental defects of the humeral head for the treatment of chronic locked posterior dislocation of the shoulder,” Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery A, vol. 78, no. 3, pp. 376–382, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. A. A. Martinez, A. Calvo, J. Domingo, J. Cuenca, A. Herrera, and M. Malillos, “Allograft reconstruction of segmental defects of the humeral head associated with posterior dislocations of the shoulder,” Injury, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 319–322, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. B. S. Chapovsky and J. D. Kelly, “Osteochondral allograft transplantation for treatment of glenohumeral insta—bility,” Arthroscopy, vol. 21, article 1007, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  42. P. A. Davidson, L. J. Lemak, and J. W. Uribe, “Anatomic humeral head resurfacing. Review of clinical outcomes and case presentations,” http://www.arthrosurface.com/literature-data/brochures/.
  43. P. Grondin and J. Leith, “Combined large Hill-Sachs and bony Bankart lesions treated by Latarjet and partial humeral head resurfacing: a report of 2 cases,” Canadian Journal of Surgery, vol. 52, no. 3, pp. 249–254, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. C. Moros and C. S. Ahmad, “Partial humeral head resurfacing and Latarjet coracoid transfer for treatment of recurrent anterior glenohumeral instability,” Orthopedics, vol. 32, article 602, no. 8, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. T. B. Edwards, N. R. Kadakia, A. Boulahia et al., “A comparison of hemiarthroplasty and total shoulder arthroplasty in the treatment of primary glenohumeral osteoarthritis: results of a multicenter study,” Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 207–213, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. C. S. Radnay, K. J. Setter, L. Chambers, W. N. Levine, L. U. Bigliani, and C. S. Ahmad, “Total shoulder replacement compared with humeral head replacement for the treatment of primary glenohumeral osteoarthritis: a systematic review,” Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 396–402, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. A. J. HELFET, “Coracoid transplantation for recurring dislocation of the shoulder,” The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery B, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 198–202, 1958. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. J. Allain, D. Goutallier, and C. Glorion, “Long-term results of the Latarjet procedurefor the treatment on anterior instability of the shoulder,” Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume, vol. 80, no. 8, pp. 41–52, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  49. M. D. Lazarus, J. A. Sidles, D. T. Harryman II, and F. A. Matsen III, “Effect of a chondral-labral defect on glenoid concavity and glenohumeral stability: a cadaveric model,” Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery A, vol. 78, no. 1, pp. 94–102, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. L. Lafosse, E. Lejeune, A. Bouchard, C. Kakuda, R. Gobezie, and T. Kochhar, “The arthroscopic Latarjet procedure for the treatment of anterior shoulder instability,” Arthroscopy, vol. 23, no. 11, pp. 1242.e1–1242.e5, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. L. Lafosse and S. Boyle, “Arthroscopic Latarjet procedure,” Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 2–12, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. N. Ghodadra, A. Gupta, A. A. Romeo et al., “Normalization of glenohumeral articular contact pressures after Latarjet or iliac crest bone-grafting,” Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery A, vol. 92, no. 6, pp. 1478–1489, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. J. J. P. Warner, T. J. Gill, J. D. O'Hollerhan, N. Pathare, and P. J. Millett, “Anatomical glenoid reconstruction for recurrent anterior glenohumeral instability with glenoid deficiency using an autogenous tricortical iliac crest bone graft,” The American Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 205–212, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. M. T. Provencher, N. Ghodadra, L. LeClere, D. J. Solomon, and A. A. Romeo, “Anatomic osteochondral glenoid reconstruction for recurrent glenohumeral instability with glenoid deficiency using a distal tibia allograft,” Arthroscopy—Journal of Arthroscopic and Related Surgery, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 446–452, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. P. W. Weng, H. C. Shen, H. H. Lee, S. S. Wu, and C. H. Lee, “Open reconstruction of large bony glenoid erosion with allogeneic bone graft for recurrent anterior shoulder dislocation,” The American Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. 37, no. 9, pp. 1792–1797, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. M. C. Beran, C. T. Donaldson, and J. Y. Bishop, “Treatment of chronic glenoid defects in the setting of recurrent anterior shoulder instability: a systematic review,” Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery, vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 769–780, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. A. Auffarth, J. Schauer, N. Matis, B. Kofler, W. Hitzl, and H. Resch, “The J-bone graft for anatomical glenoid reconstruction in recurrent posttraumatic anterior shoulder dislocation,” American Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 638–647, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. S. S. Burkhart, J. F. De Beer, J. R. H. Barth, T. Criswell, C. Roberts, and D. P. Richards, “Results of modified latarjet reconstruction in patients with anteroinferior instability and significant bone loss,” Arthroscopy—Journal of Arthroscopic and Related Surgery, vol. 23, no. 10, pp. 1033–1041, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. M. Khazzam, S. M. Kane, and M. J. Smith, “Open shoulder stabilization procedure using bone block technique for treatment of chronic glenohumeral instability associated with bony glenoid deficiency,” The American Journal of Orthopedics, vol. 38, no. 7, pp. 329–335, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. M. Scheibel, C. Nikulka, A. Dick, R. J. Schroeder, A. Gerber Popp, and N. P. Haas, “Autogenous bone grafting for chronic anteroinferior glenoid defects via a complete subscapularis tenotomy approach,” Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery, vol. 128, no. 11, pp. 1317–1325, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. L. Hovelius, B. Sandström, and M. Saebö, “One hundred eighteen Bristow-Latarjet repairs for recurrent anterior dislocation of the shoulder prospectively followed for fifteen years: study II-the evolution of dislocation arthropathy,” Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 279–289, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. G. C. Singer, P. M. Kirkland, and R. J. H. Emery, “Coracoid transposition for recurrent anterior instability of the shoulder. A 20-year follow-up study,” Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery B, vol. 77, no. 1, pp. 73–76, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. H. Rahme, L. Wikblad, J. Nowak, and S. Larsson, “Long-term clinical and radiologic results after Eden-Hybbinette operation for anterior instability of the shoulder,” Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 15–19, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. S. Cerciello, T. B. Edwards, and G. Walch, “Chronic anterior glenohumeral instability in soccer players: results for a series of 28 shoulders treated with the Latarjet procedure,” Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 197–202, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. A. C. Atalar, K. Bilsel, I. Eren, D. Celik, H. Cil, and M. Demirhan, “Modified Latarjet procedure for patients with glenoid bone defect accompanied with anterior shoulder instability,” Acta Orthopaedica et Traumatologica Turcica, vol. 47, no. 6, pp. 393–399, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  66. G. H. Sandmann, P. Ahrens, C. Schaeffeler et al., “Balloon osteoplasty—a new technique for minimally invasive reduction and stabilisation of Hill-Sachs lesions of the humeral head: a cadaver study,” International orthopaedics, vol. 36, no. 11, pp. 2287–2291, 2012. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. R. Z. Stachowicz, J. R. Romanowski, R. Wissman, and K. Kenter, “Percutaneous balloon humeroplasty for Hill-Sachs lesions: a novel technique,” Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery, vol. 22, no. 9, pp. e7–e13, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. J. R. Lynch, J. M. Clinton, C. B. Dewing, W. J. Warme, and F. A. Matsen III, “Treatment of osseous defects associated with anterior shoulder instability,” Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 317–328, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. E. M. Wolf and A. Arianjam, “Hill-Sachs remplissage, an arthroscopic solution for the engaging Hill-Sachs lesion: 2- to 10-year follow-up and incidence of recurrence,” Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery, vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 814–820, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  70. M. S. Rashid, J. Crichton, U. Butt, P. I. Akimau, and C. P. Charalambous, “Arthroscopic “Remplissage” for shoulder instability: a systematic review,” Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  71. A. Miniaci and M. W. Gish, “Management of anterior glenohumeral instability associated with large Hill-Sachs defects,” Techniques in Shoulder and Elbow Surgery, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 170–175, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. M. J. Dipaola, L. M. Jazrawi, A. S. Rokito et al., “Management of humeral and glenoid bone loss associated with glenohumeral instability: results with anatomical bone grafting,” Bulletin of the NYU Hospital for Joint Diseases, vol. 68, no. 4, pp. 245–250, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. A. A. Martinez, E. Navarro, D. Iglesias, J. Domingo, A. Calvo, and I. Carbonel, “Long-term follow-up of allograft reconstruction of segmental defects of the humeral head associated with posterior dislocation of the shoulder,” Injury, vol. 44, no. 4, pp. 488–491, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. B. G. Weber, L. A. Simpson, and F. Hardegger, “Rotational humeral osteotomy for recurrent anterior dislocation of the shoulder associated with a large Hill-Sachs lesion,” Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery A, vol. 66, no. 9, pp. 1443–1450, 1984. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. M. Kronberg and L. A. Brostrom, “Rotation osteotomy of the proximal humerus to stabilise the shoulder: five years' experience,” Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery B, vol. 77, no. 6, pp. 924–927, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus