Advances in Orthopedics / 2018 / Article / Tab 3

Review Article

Pathology and Treatment of Traumatic Cervical Spine Syndrome: Whiplash Injury

Table 3

Clinical spectrum of whiplash-associated disorders as proposed by the Quebec Task Force [2].

GradePresumed pathologyClinical presentation

IMicroscopic or multimicroscopic lesion
Lesion is not serious enough to cause muscle spasm
Usually presents to a doctor more than 24 h after trauma

II Neck sprain and bleeding around soft tissue (articular capsules, ligaments, tendons, and muscles)
Muscle spasm secondary to soft tissue injury
Usually presents to a doctor in the first 24 h after trauma
Nonspecific radiation to the head, face, occipital region, shoulder, and arm form soft tissues injuries
Neck pain with limited range of motion due to muscle spasm

III Injuries to neurologic system by mechanical injury or by irritation secondary to bleeding or inflammationPresents to a doctor usually within a few hours after the trauma
Limited range of motion combined with neurologic symptoms and signs

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