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ElectroComponent Science and Technology
Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 1-7

Low Frequency Characteristics of TiO2(Rutile)–Glass Thick Films

1Institute of Electron Technology, Technical University of Wroclaw, Wroclaw 50—370, Poland
2Ignacy Lukasiewicz Technical University of Rzeszów, Rzeszów 35—021, Poland

Received 4 June 1975; Accepted 2 December 1976

Copyright © 1977 Hindawi Publishing Corporation. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


An analysis is made of the low-frequency characteristics of the permittivity ε and of tan δ of a thick-film insulator containing rutile grains bonded with an amorphous glass. The appearance of dielectric relaxation associated with a maximum of tan δ, as well as characteristic Debye dispersions of the electric permittivity is observed. The relaxation time does not depend on the rutile concentration in the dielectric. An equivalent circuit describing the behaviour of a capacitor with such an insulator in the low frequency range is suggested. The experimental results are shown to be consistent with an analysis based on the assumption that a titanium ion relaxation process occurs in the rutile grains. In normal ambient conditions the influence of this kind of polarization disappears at frequencies higher than 102 Hz; ε and tan δ then change insignificantly and the value of tan δ is conditioned by the hopping mechanism of conductivity in the glass and in rutile.