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Active and Passive Electronic Components
Volume 26, Issue 1, Pages 23-29
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/APEC.26.23

Electrochemistry of Inorganic Nanocrystalline Electrode Materials for Lithium Batteries

1Institut de Chimie de la Matière Condensée de Bordeaux du CNRS, 87 Avenue du Dr. A. Schweitzer, Pessac Cedex 33608, France
2Center for Materials for Electronics Technology, Ministry of Information Technology, Government of India, Panchwati, Pashan Road, Pune 411 008, India
3National Chemical Laboratory, CSIR, Pashan Road, Pune 411 008, India

Received 28 June 2002; Revised 3 July 2002

Copyright © 2003 Hindawi Publishing Corporation. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Traditional electrode materials are based on the redox potential difference of the electrode in the course of intercalation/deintercalation reactions. They are generally well-crystalline host compounds either with layered structure such as LiCoO2 and LiNiO2, or with tunnel structure like LiMn2O4 Nanocrystalline materials are, however, being re-evaluated recently as ‘nanoscience’ advances. The electrochemistry of this kind of materials is much different from that of traditional crystalline ones because of their significant ‘surface effects’. In connection with that, the nanocrystalline cathode materials are reported to have an enhanced electrochemical activity when the first significative electrochemical step is insertion of Li ions (discharge process). The “electrochemical grafting” concept will be given as a plausible explanation. As illustrative examples, electrochemical behaviors of nanocrystalline manganese oxydes are presented.