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Active and Passive Electronic Components
Volume 27 (2004), Issue 4, Pages 189-195

IFDR: An Efficient Iterative Optimization Algorithm for Standard Cell Placement

Department of Electronic Engineering, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200030, China

Received 4 November 2003; Revised 17 November 2003

Copyright © 2004 Hindawi Publishing Corporation. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


In the automatic placement of integrated circuits, the force directed relaxation (FDR) method [Goto, S. (1981). An efficient algorithm for the two-dimensional placement problem in electrical circuit layout. IEEE Trans. on Circuits and Systems, CAS-28(1), 12-18] is a good iterative optimization algorithm. In this article, an improved force directed relaxation (IFDR) method for standard cell placement is presented, which provides a more flexible and efficient cell location adjustment scheme and a more extensive searching scale for better iterative placement optimization than the FDR method. A new heuristic algorithm based on local optimization is combined with the IFDR method to improve the placement. Experiments on the Microelectronics Center of North Carolina (MCNC) standard cell benchmarks [ dirs/Layout Synth92/] have been done, and the results show that total wire length is reduced up to 25% and by an average of 16% in comparison with that from the placement algorithm of TimberWolf7.0.