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Active and Passive Electronic Components
Volume 2011, Article ID 131546, 13 pages
Research Article

Synthesis of Oscillators Using Limit Variables and NAM Expansion

Electronics and Communication Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, Giza 12613, Egypt

Received 12 January 2011; Accepted 7 March 2011

Academic Editor: Jiun Wei Horng

Copyright © 2011 Ahmed M. Soliman. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


A systematic synthesis procedure for generating second-order grounded passive element canonic oscillators is given. The synthesis procedure is based on using nodal admittance matrix (NAM) expansion with the bracket method as well as using the infinity parameters. The resulting derived oscillators include circuits using various types of current conveyors. Two classes of oscillators are considered in this paper, and they have the advantages of having independent control on the condition of oscillation and on the frequency of oscillation by varying two different grounded resistors. The two classes of oscillators considered can be easily compensated for the parasitic element effects introduced by the current conveyors. This paper is considered to be continuation to the recently published paper on oscillators using NAM expansion D. G. Haigh et al. (2006). This is the first paper in the literature which uses limit-variables called infinity-variables D. G. Haigh et al. (2005) in the synthesis of oscillator circuits. Simulation results demonstrating the practicality of some of the generated circuits are included.