Active and Passive Electronic Components

Active and Passive Electronic Components / 2011 / Article

Research Article | Open Access

Volume 2011 |Article ID 320367 | https://doi.org/10.1155/2011/320367

Jiun-Wei Horng, "Quadrature Oscillators Using Operational Amplifiers", Active and Passive Electronic Components, vol. 2011, Article ID 320367, 4 pages, 2011. https://doi.org/10.1155/2011/320367

Quadrature Oscillators Using Operational Amplifiers

Academic Editor: Ahmed M. Soliman
Received19 May 2011
Accepted02 Jul 2011
Published21 Sep 2011

Abstract

Two new quadrature oscillator circuits using operational amplifiers are presented. Outputs of two sinusoidal signals with 90° phase difference are available in each circuit configuration. Both proposed quadrature oscillators are based on third-order characteristic equations. The oscillation conditions and oscillation frequencies of the proposed quadrature oscillators are orthogonally controllable. The circuits are implemented using the widely available operational amplifiers which results in low output impedance and high current drive capability. Experimental results are included.

1. Introduction

Quadrature oscillator is used because the circuit provides two sinusoids with 90° phase difference, as, for example, in telecommunications for quadrature mixers and single-sideband generators or for measurement purposes in vector generators or selective voltmeters. Therefore, quadrature oscillators constitute an important unit in many communication and instrumentation systems [17].

Recently, several multiphase oscillators based on operational amplifiers were proposed [611]. Two-integrator loop technique was developed to realize quadrature oscillators using operational amplifiers [6]. In 1993 [7], Holzel proposed a new method for realizing quadrature oscillator, which consists of two all-pass filters and one inverter using operational amplifiers. Several multiphase oscillators using operational amplifiers were proposed in [811]. However, the quadrature output voltages cannot be obtained from [810]. The multiphase sinusoidal oscillator in [11] was constructed by cascading several first-order all-pass networks and unity-gain inverting networks. However, the block diagram of the quadrature oscillators in [11] was the same with [7].

In this paper, two new quadrature oscillator circuits using operational amplifiers are proposed. Outputs of two sinusoidal signals with 90° phase difference are available in each proposed circuit configuration. Both proposed quadrature oscillators are based on third-order characteristic equations. The oscillation conditions and oscillation frequencies of the proposed quadrature oscillators are orthogonally controllable. The circuits are implemented using the widely available operational amplifiers which results in low output impedance, high current drive capability (enabling the systems to drive a variety of loads), simplicity, and low cost.

2. Circuit Description

Figure 1 shows the first proposed quadrature oscillator circuit. The characteristic equation of the circuit can be expressed as

At , by equating the real and imaginary parts with zero, the oscillation condition and oscillation frequency can be obtained as From (2) and (3), the oscillation condition and oscillation frequency can be orthogonally controllable.

From Figure 1, the voltage transfer function from to is The phase difference, , between and is ensuring the voltage and to be in quadrature. Because the output impedance of the operational amplifier is very small, the two output terminals, and , can be directly connected to the next stage, respectively.

The passive sensitivities of the quadrature oscillator in Figure 1 are all low and obtained as

Figure 2 shows the second proposed quadrature oscillator circuit. The characteristic equation of the circuit can be expressed as

At , by equating the real and imaginary parts with zero, the oscillation condition and oscillation frequency can be obtained as From (8) and (9), the oscillation condition and oscillation frequency can be orthogonally controllable.

From Figure 2, the voltage transfer function from to is The phase difference, , between and is ensuring the voltage and to be in quadrature. Because the output impedance of the operational amplifier is very small, the two output terminals, and , can be directly connected to the next stage, respectively.

The passive sensitivities of the quadrature oscillator in Figure 2 are all low and obtained as

3. Experimental Results

The quadrature oscillator in Figure 1 was constructed using LF351s. Figure 3 represents the quadrature sinusoidal output waveforms of Figure 1 with = = = 1 nF, = = = = 10 kΩ, = 4.563 kΩ, and the power supply ±10 V. Figure 4 shows the experimental results of the oscillation frequency of Figure 1 by varying the value of ( = = = = ) with = = = 1 nF, and was varied with by (2) to ensure the oscillations will start.

The quadrature oscillator in Figure 2 was constructed using LF351s. Figure 5 represents the quadrature sinusoidal output waveforms of Figure 2 with = = = = = 1 nF, = = 10 kΩ, = 4.767 kΩ, and the power supply ±10 V. Figure 6 shows the experimental results of the oscillation frequency of Figure 2 by varying the value of ( = = ) with = = = = = 1 nF, and was varied with by (8) to ensure the oscillations will start.

4. Conclusions

Two new quadrature oscillator circuits based on operational amplifiers are presented. The proposed quadrature oscillators provide the following advantages: (i) two sinusoidal output signals of 90° phase difference are obtained simultaneously in each configuration; (ii) the oscillation conditions and oscillation frequencies are orthogonally controllable; (iii) the output terminals have the advantages of low output impedances and high current drive capability; (iv) simplicity and low cost; (v) the passive sensitivities are low.

References

  1. M. T. Ahmed, I. A. Khan, and N. Minhaj, “On transconductance-C quadrature oscillators,” International Journal of Electronics, vol. 83, no. 2, pp. 201–207, 1997. View at: Google Scholar
  2. J. W. Horng, “Current differencing buffered amplifiers based single resistance controlled quadrature oscillator employing grounded capacitors,” IEICE Transactions on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences, vol. E85-A, no. 6, pp. 1416–1419, 2002. View at: Google Scholar
  3. M. Kumngern and K. Dejhan, “DDCC-based quadrature oscillator with grounded capacitors and resistors,” Active and Passive Electronic Components, vol. 2009, Article ID 987304, 2009. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  4. J. W. Horng, H. Lee, and J. Y. Wu, “Electronically tunable third-order quadrature oscillator using CDTAs,” Radioengineering, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 326–330, 2010. View at: Google Scholar
  5. W. Tangsrirat and W. Tanjaroen, “Current-mode sinusoidal quadrature oscillator with independent control of oscillation frequency and condition using CDTAs,” Indian Journal of Pure and Applied Physics, vol. 48, no. 5, pp. 363–366, 2010. View at: Google Scholar
  6. A. S. Sedra and K. C. Smith, Microelectronic Circuits, Oxford University Press, New York, NY, USA, 4th edition, 1998.
  7. R. Holzel, “Simple wide-band sine wave quadrature oscillator,” IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 758–760, 1993. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  8. M. T. Abuelma'atti and W. A. Almansoury, “Active-R multiphase oscillators,” IEE Proceedings Part G, vol. 134, no. 6, pp. 292–294, 1987. View at: Google Scholar
  9. S. J. G. Gift, “Multiphase sinusoidal oscillator system using operational amplifiers,” International Journal of Electronics, vol. 83, no. 1, pp. 61–67, 1997. View at: Google Scholar
  10. S. J. G. Gift, “Multiphase sinusoidal oscillator using inverting-mode operational amplifiers,” IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 986–991, 1998. View at: Google Scholar
  11. S. J. G. Gift, “Application of all-pass filters in the design of multiphase sinusoidal systems,” Microelectronics Journal, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 9–13, 2000. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar

Copyright © 2011 Jiun-Wei Horng. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


More related articles

 PDF Download Citation Citation
 Download other formatsMore
 Order printed copiesOrder
Views19558
Downloads1707
Citations

Related articles

We are committed to sharing findings related to COVID-19 as quickly as possible. We will be providing unlimited waivers of publication charges for accepted research articles as well as case reports and case series related to COVID-19. Review articles are excluded from this waiver policy. Sign up here as a reviewer to help fast-track new submissions.