Abstract
The paper presents a new current mode biquadratic filter with one input and three outputs using differential voltage current conveyor (DVCC) and four passive components. The proposed circuit can simultaneously realize lowpass, bandpass, and highpass filter functions without changing the circuit topology and passive elements. The circuit exhibits a good frequency performance and lowsensitivity figures. PSPICE simulation using 0.5 μm CMOS parameters are given to validate the proposed circuit. The circuit provides a simple yet novel solution to the currentmode filtering after appropriate incorporation of current sensing elements in form of current buffers.
1. Introduction
Currentmode circuits have been receiving considerable attention owing to their potential advantages such as wider bandwidth, greater linearity, higher slew rate, wider dynamic range, simple circuitry, and low power consumption compared to voltagemode circuits [1–3]. Currentmode analog signal filtering has also received a lot of attention in the recent past. Thus, several multifunction or universal biquadratic filters using current conveyors have been reported in the literature [4–36]. Recently, CDTA has also been used for currentmode filtering application [5]. The circuit in [6] realizes three basic filtering functions and uses all grounded components. The circuit [7] is based on minimum number of passive elements. Another current mode work employs only one active element in the form of a CFOA [8]. One multifunction filter using two CDBAs was also reported [9]. Current mode filters [17] benefit from high output impedance and use of grounded components. An active element which also has merged as a potential candidate for realizing filter circuits is a differential voltage current conveyor [10, 11, 17–19, 25, 26]. The works based on DVCC present a KHN biquad [10, 11] is benefiting from high output impedance outputs.
This paper presents a new secondorder current mode filter circuit employing grounded components. The circuit uses a minimum number of components required to achieve a secondorder transfer function. Three types of transfer functions are available at once, without any circuit modification. Moreover, the circuits using grounded components are beneficial from fabrication point of view. The nonideal study and parasitic effects are also given. The new circuit is verified using PSPICE, a powerful tool for verifying new circuits based on active elements, which are either not commercially available or their implementation using available ICs is not very economical.
2. Proposed Circuit
2.1. Circuits’ Description
The symbol and CMOS implementation of differential voltage current conveyor (DVCC) are shown in Figures 1 and 2, respectively, and are characterized by the following port relationship: A new currentmode biquadratic filter with one input terminal and three output terminals is proposed. The given circuit uses one differential voltage current conveyor (DVCC), two grounded resistors and two grounded capacitors. The given circuit can realize the standard filter functions: lowpass, bandpass, and highpass, simultaneously without changing the passive elements. The given circuit uses one DVCC, two grounded resistors, and two grounded capacitors. The use of only grounded components is particularly attractive for IC implementation.
2.2. Circuit Analysis
The proposed circuit of Figure 3 is analyzed using (1). The transfer functions can be expressed as From (2), it can be seen that a lowpass response is obtained from , a bandpass response is obtained from , highpass response is obtained from under the condition .
In lowpass and bandpass responses, the resonance angular frequency and the quality factor are given by It may be further noted that for highpass response, the resistors are matched as , so the resonance angular frequency and the quality factor of the above (3) become The highpass gain, lowpass gain and bandpass gain, are given by In (6), the highpass gain and lowpass gain are in unity, and the band pass gain with equal resistor design also becomes unity. Sensitivity figures of the filter parameters (3) for the proposed circuit is analyzed. Pole frequency sensitivity is found to be 0.5 in magnitude for all elements Pole sensitivity for resistive and capacitive elements is, respectively, found as For equal capacitor and resistor design, the sensitivity of pole to resistive and capacitive elements becomes less than unity in magnitude. It is to be noted that a new active element,namely, current backward transconductance Amplifier (CBTA), has been recently used for current and voltage mode filtering applications [33]. The recent work includes current mode universal filter with single input and three outputs using single active element and only grounded passive components. The circuit also enjoys low active and passive sensitivities. The novel CBTAbased work employs as many as 22 transistors along with a floating current source, which is cumbersome to implement, as compared to the proposed circuit which uses only 10 transistors and no current source. Therefore, the new proposed circuit is lot simpler than the recent novel work [33].
3. Nonidealities and Parasitic Study
3.1. Nonideal Analysis
Taking the tracking errors of the DVCC into account, the relationship of the terminal voltages and currents of the DVCC can be rewritten as Here, and are the voltage transfer gains from and terminal, respectively, to the terminal and is the current transfer gain of DVCC from to terminal, is the current transfer gain of DVCC from the to terminal. The above transfer gains deviate unity by the voltage and current transfer errors, which are quite small and technology dependent. Moreover, the transfer gains, instead of being real, are actually frequency dependent with an upper bound on the usable frequency.
The current mode biquad filter of Figure 3 is analyzed using (9) (nonideal characteristic equations), thus transfer functions become as where and are the voltage transfer gains of DVCC from the and terminals to the terminal, respectively, is the current transferw gain of DVCC from to terminal, is the current transfer gain of DVCC from the to terminal. Equation (10) show the transfer function of second order lowpass filter, bandpass filter, and high pass filter with nonidealities of DVCC, respectively. And it is to be noted that (10) reduces to (2) for (where ).
The resonance angular frequency and quality factor with non idealities are obtained by where and are the voltage transfer gains of DVCC from the and terminals to the terminal, respectively, is the current transfer gain of DVCC from to terminal, is the current transfer gain of DVCC from the to terminal. It is to be further noted that (11) reduces to (4) and (12) reduces to (5) for (where ).
The active and passive pole frequency sensitivity is found to be 0.5 in magnitude for all elements Pole sensitivity for active and passive elements is found as where and are the voltage transfer gains of DVCC from the and terminals to the terminal, respectively, is the current transfer gain of DVCC from to terminal, and is the current transfer gain of DVCC from the to terminal. For equal capacitor and resistor design, the sensitivity of pole to active and passive elements becomes within unity in magnitude.
3.2. Effect of DVCC Parasitics
Analogous to the secondgeneration current conveyor (CCII), the DVCC has a small parasitic resistance at port and high output impedance () at port . As the terminal of the DVCC is connected to a resistor, the parasitic resistance at the terminal of the DVCC can be absorbed as a part of the main resistance. As the value of is much smaller, then the external resistor , so poleω_{o} of the proposed circuit of secondorder current mode biquad filter will not be affected. The effects of the capacitors at port and of the DVCC are also negligible, because these capacitors are quite small (and process dependent) as compared to the external capacitors. However, the effective values of the capacitors after parasitics’ inclusion is given below:
From (15), it is clear that the parasitic capacitances appear in shunt with external capacitors thus ensuring a possibility of predistorting the designed values. Therefore, it is to be concluded that the circuits are not adversely affected by the parasitic capacitances and terminal resistances. This would be further confirmed in the following section.
3.3. Output Current Sensing
It may next be argued that the output currents are through passive elements. Moreover, the impedance level may also not be desirable and even frequency dependent (where the output is through a capacitor). Additional current sensing elements in form of current followers can be employed for the purpose. It is a well known fact that current conveyor itself can be used to realize an accurate current follower. This would then ensure high impedance current output but at the cost of ungrounding the passive components. All these issues are quite obvious, but keeping in view the simplicity of the proposed circuit topology, this may not be seen as a drawback of the proposed work. Other available work also suffers from similar current sensing problems [32] as compared to many others which actually show high impedance output filter functions [17, 30, 34]. As already pointed out, the current follower is easily realized using a DVCC itself, by utilizing and as input and outputs, respectively (grounding terminals). The current follower circuit is shown in Figure 4 for completeness sake. Figure 4(a) realizes a positive current follower, whereas Figure 4(b) realizes a negative (inverting) current follower. The use of current follower would make the passive elements virtually grounded instead of being physically grounded.
(a)
(b)
4. Simulation Results
PSPICE simulations were performed using the CMOS realization of DVCC with 0.5 μ level 3 MOSFET parameters as also listed in Algorithm 1 and Table 1. The supply voltages used were ±2.5 V and = −1.6 V. The proposed circuit of secondorder current mode biquad filter (Figure 3) circuit was designed with , MHz: = = 10 pF, = = 2 KΩ. The simulated resonance frequency is same as designed one. The power consumption was found to be 4.9 mW. The simulation results of secondorder currentmode biquad are shown in from Figure 5 to Figure 9. Figure 5 shows the simulated gain plots of all three responses (highpass response, lowpass response, and bandpass response). Figure 6 shows the simulated transient output for lowpass with amplitude of 140 μA peak to peak at input of 9.7 MHz. Figure 7 shows the simulated transient output for bandpass with amplitude of 180 μA peak to peak at input of 9.7 MHz. Figure 8 shows the simulated transient output for highpass with amplitude of 240 μA peak to peak at input of 9.7 MHz. The output waveform for highpass function at 1 GHz frequency is also shown in Figure 9. As it can be seen, there is a close agreement between the theory and the simulation. The T.H.D. of the proposed circuit at all outputs is within 2%, which is low, keeping in view the frequency of operation.

5. Conclusion
A new secondorder currentmode active filter is presented. It is very simple and contains a minimum number of components required to achieve a secondorder transfer function. Three types of transfer functions are available at once, without any circuit modification. However, due to the circuit simplicity, and are not independently adjustable. The new circuit is suited for highfrequency operation. PSPICE simulations using 0.5 μm CMOS parameters support the validity and practical utility of the proposed circuit.
Acknowledgment
The authors are thankful to the Editor Professor Iqbal A. Khan for getting the paper promptly reviewed and for recommending this paper.