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Active and Passive Electronic Components
Volume 2011, Article ID 895247, 8 pages
Research Article

Modeling and Extraction of Parameters Based on Physical Effects in Bipolar Transistors

Microelectronics Research Center, Antigua Carretera de Vento Km 8, Capdevila, P.O. Box 8016, Ciudad de la Habana 10800, Cuba

Received 30 September 2010; Revised 10 January 2011; Accepted 10 February 2011

Academic Editor: Xiaobin Yuan

Copyright © 2011 Agnes Nagy et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The rising complexity of electronic systems, the reduction of components size, and the increment of working frequencies demand every time more accurate and stable integrated circuits, which require more precise simulation programs during the design process. PSPICE, widely used to simulate the general behavior of integrated circuits, does not consider many of the physical effects that can be found in real devices. Compact models, HICUM and MEXTRAM, have been developed over recent decades, in order to eliminate this deficiency. This paper presents some of the physical aspects that have not been studied so far, such as the expression of base-emitter voltage, including the emitter emission coefficient effect (), physical explanation and simulation procedure, as well as a new extraction method for the diffusion potential , based on the forward biased base-emitter capacitance, showing excellent agreement between experimental and theoretical results.