Advances in Public Health has recently been accepted into Emerging Sources Citation Index.
Advances in Public Health publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies in all areas of public health.
Advances in Public Health maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.
Abstracting and Indexing
Latest ArticlesMore articles
Perceived Stress and Its Associated Factors during COVID-19 among Healthcare Providers in Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study
Background. Coronavirus causes serious health problems worldwide including increased mental health burden to the society at large scale and particularly the healthcare providers. Understanding the immediate mental health and psychological response of the healthcare providers after a public health emergency is important for implementing better prevention and response mechanisms to a disaster. Objective. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of perceived stress and risk factors of coronavirus disease 2019 among healthcare providers in Dilla, Southern Ethiopia. Methods. An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 244 samples selected with the systematic random sampling technique from March to April 2020. Data collection was carried out with a validated perceived stress scale adapted from the World Health Organization. Data were coded and entered into Epi Info Version 7 and were exported and analyzed with SPSS version 20. Crude and adjusted OR were analyzed using logistic regression, and the level of significance of association was determined at value <0.05. Result. The prevalence of perceived stress among participants was 126 (51.6%). Being at the age range of 25–31 years (AOR = 2.5, 95% CI, 1.12, 5.81), master’s and above in their qualification (AOR = 6.0, 95% CI 1.59, 22.31), nurse professionals (AOR = 8.2, 95% CI 2.69, 24.74), and pharmacist professionals (AOR = 4.8, 95% CI, 1.25, 18.64) were variables found to have a strong statistically significant association with the perceived stress of coronavirus disease. Conclusion. More than half of the study participants were found to have perceived stress for coronavirus disease. Early screening and intervention of stress among frontline healthcare providers based on the findings are suggested.
Prevalence and Determinants of Low Birth Weight in Ethiopia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Introduction. Low birth weight (LBW) is the most significant risk factor for neonatal and infant mortality. It is one of the major public health problems in developing countries. Although there are various studies on low birth weight, findings were inconsistent and inconclusive. Therefore, this study was conducted to estimate the national-pooled prevalence of low birth weight and its associated factors in Ethiopia. Method. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guideline was followed. This meta-analysis employed a review of both published and unpublished studies conducted in Ethiopia. The databases used were PubMed, Google Scholar, CINAHL, and African Journals Online. Relevant search terms for prevalence and determinants of LBW were used to retrieve articles. The meta-analysis was conducted using STATA 14 software. Forest plots were used to present the findings. The Cochran Q test and I2 test statistics were used to test heterogeneity across studies. Egger’s test was used to assess the publication bias of included studies. The pooled prevalence and the odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed and were presented using forest plots. Results. A total of 28 studies, 50,110 newborn babies, were included in this meta-analysis. The pooled prevalence of LBW in Ethiopia was 14.1% (95% CI = 11.2, 17.1). Higher variation in the prevalence of LBW in different regions across the country was observed. Significant association of LBW with sex of the newborn baby, higher odds among female babies (OR = 1.5 (95% CI = 1.2, 1.7)), prematurity (OR = 4.7 (95% CI = 1.5, 14.5)), not attending prenatal care (OR = 1.7 (95% CI = 1.4, 2.2)), pregnancy-induced hypertension (OR = 6.7 (95% CI = 3.5, 12.9)), and newborn babies whose mothers were from rural areas (OR = 1.8 (95% CI = 1.2, 2.6) were the factors associated with low birth weight. Conclusions. The prevalence of LBW in Ethiopia was high. LBW was associated with several maternal and newborn characteristics. The large disparity of LBW among the different regions in the country needs targeted intervention in areas with higher prevalence. Particular emphasis should be given to mothers residing in rural areas. Community-based programs are important to increase the use of prenatal care.
Under-Five Mortality and Associated Risk Factors in Rural Settings of Ethiopia: Evidences from 2016 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey
Background. Evidence shows that in Ethiopia, a gradual decrease of under-five mortality is observed, but it is still high in the rural settings of the country. We are motivated to investigate the socioeconomic, demographic, maternal and paternal, and child-related associated risk factors of under-five mortality given birth from rural resident mothers. Methods. Demographic and Health Survey data from Ethiopia (2016) were used for analysis. The chi-square test of association and logistic regression were used to determine the associated risk factors of under-five children mortality. Study Settings. Rural Ethiopia. Results. Secondary school and above completed fathers (AOR = 0.77; : 0.63–0.94) and primary school completed mothers (AOR = 0.82; : 0.72–0.93); multiple twin child (AOR = 4.50; : 3.38–5.98); public sector delivery (AOR = 0.65; : 0.55–0.76); had working of mother (AOR = 1.28; : 1.16–1.42) and of father (AOR = 1.45; : 1.25–1.69); mothers aged above 16 at first birth (AOR = 0.41; : 0.37–0.45); breastfeeding (AOR = 0.60; : 0.55–0.66); birth order of 2-3 (AOR = 1.18; : 1.02–1.37); religious belief of Muslim (AOR = 1.20; : 1.02–1.41); users of contraceptive method (AOR = 0.80; : 0.71–0.90); vaccinated child (AOR = 0.52; : 0.46–0.60); family size of 4–6 (AOR = 0.74; : 0.63–0.86) and of seven and above (AOR = 0.44; : 0.36–0.52); mother’s age group: aged 20–29 (AOR = 3.88; : 3.08–4.90), aged 30–39 (AOR = 16.29; : 12.66–20.96), and aged 40 and above (AOR = 55.97; : 42.27–74.13); number of antenatal visits: 1–3 visits (AOR = 0.50; : 0.43–0.58), and four and above visits (AOR = 0.46; : 0.39–0.54); and preceding birth interval of 25–36 months (AOR = 0.55; : 0.48–0.62) and above 36 months (AOR = 0.30; : 0.26–0.34) are significant determinant factors of under-five mortality in rural settings. Conclusions. Differences in regions, educated parents, born in singleton, public sector delivery, nonavailability of occupation of parents, mothers older than 16 at first birth, breastfeeding, use of a contraceptive method, child vaccination, higher number of family size, repeated antenatal visits, and preceding birth interval play a significant role regarding the survival of under-five children. These, among other differences, should be addressed decisively as part of any upcoming strategic interventions to improve the survival of children in line with the target of 2030 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).
Determinants of Virologic Failure among Adult HIV Patients on First-Line Antiretroviral Therapy at Waghimra Zone, Northern Ethiopia: A Case-Control Study
Introduction. The primary goal of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is to reduce the viral load in HIV-infected patients to promote quality of life, as well as to reduce HIV-related morbidity and mortality. A high rate of virologic failure was reported in Waghimra Zone, Northwest Ethiopia, in viral load assessment conducted among HIV-infected patients on ART in the Amhara region. However, there is limited evidence on the determinants of virological failure in the study area. This study aimed to identify the determinants of virological failure among HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy in Waghimra zone, Northern Ethiopia, 2019. Methods. An institutional-based unmatched case-control study was conducted from May 21 to June 30, 2019. Cases were people living with HIV (PLHIV) on ART who had already experienced virological failure; controls were those without virological failure. Data were extracted from 92 cases and 184 controls through chart review using a pretested and structured checklist. The data were entered using Epi Info version 7 and exported to SPSS version 20 for analysis. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was carried out to identify factors associated with virological failure, and variables with a value <0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results. This study revealed that poor adherence to ART (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 4.24, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.17, 8.31), taking ART for longer than five years (AOR = 3.11, 95% CI: 1.17, 8.25), having drug toxicity (AOR = 3.34, 95% CI: 1.54, 7.23), age of PLHIV ≥ 35 years (AOR = 2.45, 95% CI: 1.29,4.64), and recent CD4 count <200 cells/mm³ (AOR = 3.06, 95% CI: 1.52, 6.13) were factors associated with virologic failure. Conclusion and Recommendation. This study showed that poor adherence to treatment, longer duration on ART, experiencing drug toxicity, older age, and recent CD4 <200 cell/mm³ are factors that increase the risk of virologic failure.
Patient Satisfaction and Associated Factors among Outpatient Health Service Users at Primary Hospitals of North Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia, 2016
Introduction. Patient satisfaction with seeking health services is considered as one of the necessary outcomes of health system and measures of health service quality which is directly linked with utilization of the services. The results of this study were crucial and identified important findings for intervention by decision makers on critical need for patient satisfaction improvement as well as to provide evidence for stakeholders in improving quality of outpatient services. This study was aimed at assessing patient satisfaction and associated factors among outpatient health service users at primary hospitals of North Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods. Facility based cross-sectional study design was conducted in North Gondar from February to March, 2016, among outpatient health service users. Systematic sampling technique was used to get a total of 413 samples. A pretested structured interviewer administered questionnaire was used for data collection. The data were entered to Epi Info version 3.5.1 and exported to SPSS version 20 for analysis. Bivariable and multivariable logistic regression analysis were used to control cofounders and variables with p-value less than 0.05 at 95% CI were considered as significant. Result. This study showed that the overall patient satisfaction was found to be 56.1% at 95% CI (51.0–61.3). Out of all respondents, 218 (53.45%) were males and 130 (31.9%) of respondents were in the age group of ≥45 years. Availability of drugs within the hospitals, patient waiting time at registration room, waiting time to see a doctor after registration, and consulting on treatment options were found to be significantly associated with patient satisfaction. Conclusion. The overall patient satisfaction at North Gondar primary hospitals was rated low as compared to national figures. Hospital management bodies and health care service providers should give attention to improvement of drugs availability and reducing waiting time at registration room and the time length to see a doctor after registration in order to improve patients’ satisfaction.
Assessment of Health Workers’ Knowledge, Beliefs, Attitudes, and Use of Personal Protective Equipment for Prevention of COVID-19 Infection in Low-Resource Settings
Background. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a highly infectious disease with a potential for healthcare workers (HCWs) getting infected due to inadequate protection while attending to patients. Effective use of personal protective equipment (PPE) is key to mitigating the spread of SARS-CoV-2 infection in healthcare settings. Hence, there is a need to understand HCWs’ use of PPE in resource-limited settings and how closely the currently recommended guidelines for PPE are followed. This study assessed the HCWs’ knowledge about, attitudes towards, beliefs on, and use of PPE to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection in a resource-limited setting. Methods. This cross-sectional study was conducted in April 2020 in Southwest and Northwest Nigeria. The selection of participants was performed via the snowball sampling technique using a 33-item, web-based, self-administered questionnaire via a social media network. We obtained relevant sociodemographic data and information on participants’ occupations and knowledge about, attitudes towards, beliefs on, and use of PPE. We analysed the data using SPSS version 23.0 for Windows (IBM, Armonk, New York, USA). A values <0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results. A total of 290 subjects responded to the questionnaire, and 18 (6.2%) were excluded because of incomplete data. The mean age of the respondents was 32.3 ± 9.9 years. There were 116 males (42.6%). The majority of the respondents were medical doctors (114, 41.9%), followed by nurses and clinical students. Of the 272 respondents in this survey, only 70 (25.7%) had adequate knowledge about PPE. Of the respondents who presumed they had adequate knowledge about donning and doffing PPE, 94 (56%) were incorrect. The predictors of good knowledge were ages younger than 45 years () and practice location (). Conclusion. This study showed that HCWs’ knowledge about, attitudes towards, and beliefs on PPE and their PPE skill in practice in Nigeria were remarkably poor. There is an urgent need for nationwide practical training on PPE use to curtail the spread of SARS-CoV-2 infection among HCWs.