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Prevalence of Preeclampsia and Associated Factors among Antenatal Care Attending Mothers at Tirunesh Beijing General Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Background. Hypertensive condition during the pregnancy of the mother that usually occurs after 20 weeks of gestation age is clinically considered preeclampsia. This health problem of pregnant mothers can lead to various complications for both the mother and the baby. But the risk factors for preeclampsia have not been well documented. Therefore, availing up-to-date information on the prevalence and associated factors of preeclampsia is essential for its early identification and management. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of preeclampsia and associated factors among pregnant women attending antenatal care (ANC). Methods. Cross-sectional study design was used from March 1, 2022, to March 30, 2022, among 235 pregnant women attending antenatal care at Tirunesh Beijing General Hospital (TBGH) from March 1, 2022 March 30, 2022, in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Systematic random sampling was employed to get study participants from antenatal care attendants. Data were collected by an interviewer-administered questionnaire. The presence of statistical association was determined using an adjusted odds ratio (AOR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI). Variables with values less than 0.05 were considered statically significant. Result. A total of 235 participants were enrolled in the study with a 99.1% response rate. The prevalence of preeclampsia among the current pregnant women who attended ANC in Tirunesh Beijing General Hospital was 5.5% with 95% CI (AOR = 1.3–10.0). Significant variables such as respondents age >35 years, 2.1 (AOR = 1.3–3.4), history of preeclampsia 8.5 (AOR = 1.2–10.3), history of hypertension 2.9 (AOR = 3.0–7.3), ANC visit <3 times 8.5 (AOR = 3.1–13.4), and family history of hypertension 2.2 (AOR = 1.24.3) were significantly associated with preeclampsia. Conclusion. A considerable proportion of pregnant women were experiencing preeclampsia. History of preeclampsia and hypertension, family history of hypertension, and maternal age were associated factors of preeclampsia. Therefore, health professionals working in health institutions give more attention to controlling hypertension during antenatal service.
The Effect of Different Storage Conditions on the Levels of Bisphenol A in Bottled Drinking Water in Jeddah City, Saudi Arabia
Bisphenol A (BPA) in drinking water sources is a significant concern in society because BPA is one of the endocrine disruption compounds (EDCs) that can cause hazards to human health even at extremely low concentration levels. This study investigated the leaching potential of BPA from drinking water bottles in five brands of bottled drinking water in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, using high-performance liquid chromatography with a diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate the level of BPA in bottled water in the city of Jeddah. The separation was carried out under isocratic elution, and the detector was set to UV mode. Low levels of BPA were detected in all samples from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) containers. The mean concentration of BPA in water bottles stored at room temperature for 30 days was 9.46 ng·L−1, while the concentration of BPA in water bottles exposed to sunlight and boiling water bath was 16.13 ng·L−1 and 14.7 ng·L−1, respectively. Although the results show that the daily consumed concentration of BPA for an adult with 60 kg of body weight is 32.26 ng, which is lower than the total tolerable daily intake limit of BPA, health risks from the consumption of bottled water may increase after UV exposure for an extended time.
Cross-Sectional Study on COVID-19 Prevention and Vaccination Status of Veterinary Colleges in Southeast Nigeria
COVID-19 vaccination and compliance with the established prevention protocols are integral to curbing the spread of the COVID-19 virus; however, there is a paucity of information on compliance with these measures among veterinary schools within southeast Nigeria. To fill this gap, we evaluated the vaccination status and individual’s perception of the preventive measures against COVID-19 infections. A cross-sectional study using a self-reported internet-based questionnaire was employed to obtain responses from students and staff of the veterinary colleges in southeast Nigeria. Multivariate binary logistic regression analysis was used to identify significant factors associated with vaccination status and compliance with the COVID-19 prevention protocols by the respondents. A total of 183 individuals participated in the online survey. Although 75% (138/183) of the respondents revealed a willingness to take the COVID-19 vaccine, only 25.1% (46/183) of the respondents had received one or more doses of the COVID-19 vaccine. We observed that male respondents (28 ± 4.4% (95% CI 19–37)) had a higher percentage of vaccinated individuals than female respondents. Furthermore, the academic staff of the veterinary colleges were 39.70 (95% CI 2.50–630.65; ) times more likely to get vaccinated than undergraduate students. The educational status of the respondent greatly contributed to the willingness to get vaccinated, and individuals within the age bracket of 31 to 40 years were 10.2 ± 1.07 (95% CI 1.33–92.25; ) times less likely to comply with the COVID-19 prevention protocols. Although a high proportion of the respondents had a good perception of the COVID-19 prevention protocols, only 25.1% of the members of the veterinary colleges in southeast Nigeria had been vaccinated. Therefore, there is a need to create better awareness channels to improve the vaccination status of members of veterinary colleges in southeast Nigeria.
Determinants of Household Food Insecurity and Depression in Mothers: Evidence from Ghana
Background. Household food insecurity (FI) and maternal depression are serious public health problems, especially in low-income countries. The aims of this study were to determine the determinants of household FI and depression in mothers and the association between these constructs in Savelugu Municipality, Ghana. Methods. An analytical, community-based, cross-sectional survey was conducted to collect data on 364 mothers of under-five children selected using the multistage method in the municipal. Household FI and maternal depression were measured using the FI Experience Scale and Patient Health Questionnaire 9-item in personal interviews. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify the factors associated with household FI and maternal depression and the association between these two constructs. Results. The mean age of mothers was 30.1(±6.5) years with almost all practising Islamic religion (96.2%) and were married (96.7%). The prevalence of household FI and maternal depression were 51.6% and 25.3%, respectively. The determinants of household FI were mother’s self-health rating, social support, nutrition knowledge, and household’s source of drinking water, while those of maternal depression were the mother’s work, place of residence, self-health rating, and nutrition knowledge. In multivariable adjusted logistic regression analysis, women in food insecure households were about three times more likely than women in food secure households to be depressed (adjusted odds ratio = 2.49; 95% confidence interval: 1.36–4.55; and ). Conclusion. The current study shows a high prevalence of both household FI and depression in mothers in Savelugu Municipality. Both personal and household characteristics of the women are associated with household FI and maternal depression statuses, and the two constructs are highly correlated. It is recommended to include depression assessment in interventions for FI.
Cataract Prevalence and Its Associated Factors among Adult People Aged 40 Years and above in South Ari District, Southern Ethiopia
Background. Cataract is the leading cause of blindness in Ethiopia. However, the treatment was only surgery; the expected person could not use the surgical service. So far, the World Health Organization’s goal of 2,000 people using the treatment out of a million people could not be met. Objective. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of cataract and factors associated with among adult people aged 40 years and above in South Ari district of South Omo Zone, Ethiopia. Method. A community-based cross sectional study was conducted in South Ari district of South Omo Zone, Ethiopia; samples were selected using simple random sampling and eye examination. Data were collected using pretested structured questionnaires. Data quality was ensured by daily supervision completeness and consistency. The data were coded, entered, and cleaned by using Epi.info version 7 and were analyzed by using SPSS version 20. Bivariate and multivariable analysis was carried by binary logistic regression. Significances were declared by using a p value of <0.05 and AOR of confidence intervals. Result. In this study, the prevalence of cataract was found to be 7.8% (95% CI: 5.0–10.6). There is an increased chance of developing cataract among females (AOR 3.52; 95% CI: 1.39–8.83), individuals with known history of hypertension (AOR 4.5; 95% CI 1.56–13.21), adults aged 70–79 years (AOR 5.07 95% CI: 1.09–23.62), and adults aged 80 years and above (AOR 6.01; 95% CI: 1.29–27.92). Conclusions. Cataract prevalence was found to be high among the study participants. Age, sex, and known history of hypertension were factors associated with cataract.
Co-creation Approach in Practice: Naming a Cafe Located within a Rural Health Service Provides Added Value to a Health Strategy
Objective. The Victorian Government in Australia has developed Healthy Choices guidelines to ensure that healthy foods and drinks are offered and promoted in places such as hospitals. This brief report aims to present complex theoretical attributes related to cocreation through an accessible example of a competition to create a new name for the previously understated hospital “kiosk.” Methods. A mixed-methods approach using an online survey and semistructured interviews were used to obtain detailed insights from hospital staff members to engage in a naming competition for a hospital-based cafe. Results. The level of engagement in this activity was higher than anticipated by the management staff. Conclusions. Active involvement of staff members through a cocreation process can enable the development of innovative healthy eating strategies and increase staff engagement to further changes in the cafe. Implications for public health cocreation in public health promises effective stakeholder engagement and requires significant scientific advancement. This brief report illustrates theoretical constructs of cocreation through a naming competition activity that occurred as part of a larger project to improve Wimmera Base Hospital’s food environment.