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Impact of Community-Led Total Sanitation and Hygiene on Prevalence of Diarrheal Disease and Associated Factors among Under-Five Children: A Comparative Cross-Sectional Study in Selected Woredas of Gamo Gofa Zone, Southern Ethiopia
Background. Diarrheal diseases are still one of the major causes of morbidity in under-five children in sub-Saharan Africa. In Ethiopia, diarrhea is responsible for 9% of all deaths and is the major cause of under-five mortality. Objective. To assess the impact of community-led total sanitation and hygiene on the prevalence of diarrheal disease and factors associated among under-five children in Gamo Gofa Zone. Methods. Community-based comparative cross-sectional study design was used to compare the impact of community-led total sanitation and hygiene intervention on under-five diarrheal disease. Multistage sampling method was employed. The data were collected by using pretested structured questionnaires. Data quality was ensured by daily supervision completeness and consistency. The data were coded, entered, and cleaned by using Epi Info version 7 and were analyzed by using SPSS version 20. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were carried out by using binary logistic regression. Significance was declared by using value of <0.05 and AOR with 95% confidence intervals. Results. The response rate of this study was 93.3%. The overall diarrhea prevalence was 27.5% (CI = (24.06, 30.97)) which was 18.9% (CI = (14.94, 23.2)) in implemented and 36.2%. (CI = (30.41, 41.59)) in nonimplemented woredas. Children whose age was between 12 and 23 months (AOR = 1.6) and greater than 24 months (AOR = 5), availability of handwashing facilities (AOR = 4), disposal of waste in open field (AOR = 9.7), unimproved source of drinking water (AOR = 6.5), using only water for handwashing (AOR = 6), children who started complementary feeding less than 6 months (AOR = 5.6) and greater than 6 months (AOR = 5.2), and utensils used to feed children such as bottle (AOR = 3.9) were the factors positively associated with diarrhea. Conclusion. The overall prevalence of under-five diarrhea was 27.5%. The prevalence was low in CLTSH woredas as compared with non-CLTSH woredas. The study showed that handwashing facility, using only water for handwashing, open refuse disposal, and unimproved source of drinking water among under-five had a statistically significant association with diarrhea occurrence in CLTSH nonimplemented areas. Integrated efforts are needed from the Ministry of Health together with the WASH Project in improving drinking water, handwashing facilities, and solid waste disposal practices.
Practice and Associated Factors among Adult Residents towards Traditional Eye Medicine in Gondar City, North West Ethiopia
Traditional medicines are commonly used in Africa. About 13.2–82.3% of the population use traditional eye medicine. The aim of this study was to assess practice and associated factors among adult residents towards traditional eye medicine in Gondar city, North West Ethiopia. Methods. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted on 600 participants by using a pretested structured questionnaire. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20 computer software. Association and strength between dependent and independent variables were determined using odds ratio with a 95% confidence interval. Results. A total of 600 respondents participated in the study with a 95 % response rate. From the total study participants, 73 (12.2%) (95% CI: 10–15%) had used traditional eye medicine in the past two years. Variables such as being unmarried (AOR = 0.48 (95% CI: 0.17–0.83)), being illiterate (AOR = 5.40 (95% CI: 5.3–12.3)), living in traditional healers available area (AOR = 2.84 (95% CI: 1.44–7.56)), poor access to modern eye care services (AOR = 2.11 (95% CI: 1.06–4.19)), and positive family history of traditional eye medicine use (AOR = 4.00 (95% CI: 1.84–8.67)) were significantly associated with traditional eye medicine practice. Conclusion. The proportion of traditional eye medicine practice was low in the past two years in Gondar city, Ethiopia, as compared to most African and Asian studies like south East Nigeria and Nepal, respectively. This may be due to the presence of tertiary eye care centers in the city that lets the residents prefer modern eye medicines over traditional eye medicines. Positive family history of traditional eye medicine use, being unmarried, being illiterate, poor access to modern eye care service, and availability of traditional healers had a significant association with the practice of traditional eye medicine. Community awareness about traditional eye medicine use is important to reduce the risk of complications even if the proportion is low.
Practices of Healthcare Workers regarding Infection Prevention in Bale Zone Hospitals, Southeast Ethiopia
Introduction. In Ethiopia, infection prevention to protect patients, healthcare workers, and visitors from healthcare-acquired infections is one of a number of nationwide transformational initiatives to ensure the provision of quality healthcare services. The aim of this research was to assess the practice of healthcare workers regarding infection prevention and its associated factors in Bale zone Hospitals. Methods. A cross-sectional study targeted 402 healthcare workers using simple random sampling to learn about their practices related to infection prevention. Data were collected in interviews using pretested, structured questionnaires. Returned questionnaires were checked for completeness and then data were entered into a database and analyzed using SPSS Version 20. Adjusted odd ratio (AOR) with a 95% confidence interval was calculated to determine the strength of association, and variables with a p value <0.05 in the final model were considered as statistically significant. Results. Three hundred ninety-four healthcare workers participated in the study. Of these; 145 (36.8%, 95% CI 32, 42%) of them were found to have self-reported good infection prevention practice. Good knowledge towards infection prevention (AOR = 1.84, 95% CI 1.02, 3.31), availability of personal protective equipment (AOR = 1.96, 95% CI 1.16, 3.32), and water (AOR = 4.42, 95% 2.66, 7.34) at workplace were found to have a statistically significant association with healthcare workers self-reported good infection prevention practices. Conclusions. In this study, slightly more than one-third of the healthcare workers reported to have good infection prevention practice. Good knowledge towards infection prevention, working in departments, availability of personal protective equipment, and water at work place were found to have statistically significant association with self-reported good infection prevention practices.
Understanding the Rural–Rural Migration of Health Workers in Two Selected Districts of Tanzania
Globally, rural–urban migration has been the focus in addressing the question of availability of health workers in rural areas. Often, the rural–rural migration of health workers, another important dimension is neglected. This study aimed to analyze the magnitude and the underlying factors for rural–rural migration of health workers in two rural districts of Tanzania. An exploratory comparative cross-sectional study adopting both quantitative and qualitative approaches was carried out in two districts of Kilwa in Lindi region, southern Tanzania, and Rombo in Kilimanjaro region, northern Tanzania. In a quantitative approach, 174 health workers (both clinicians and nonclinicians) filled in a self-administered questionnaire between August 2015 and September 2016. For the qualitative sub-study, 14 key informants that included health facilities in-charges and district health managers from the two districts were interviewed. In addition, three focus group discussions were conducted with members of the health facilities committee, in the two districts. Over 40% of health workers migrated from one workstation to another between 2011 and 2015. Close to 70% of the migrated health workers, migrated within the same districts. The proportion of health workers migrated was higher in Kilwa compared to Rombo. However, the difference was not statistically significant. The major underlying factors for migration in both districts were: Caring for the family and Unfavorable working and living conditions. In Kilwa, unlike Rombo, rejection by the community, superstitious beliefs, and lack of social services, were the other major factors underlying migration of the health workers. While addressing rural–urban migration, attention should be paid also to the rural–rural migration of health workers. Lastly, addressing the migration of health workers is a multi-dimensional issue that needs the engagement of all stakeholders within and beyond the health sector.
Does Over-the-Counter Purchase of Antihistamines by Residents of Dhaka City, Bangladesh Align with the Prescribing Choices of the Physicians Practicing in That City?
Most current guidelines recommend prescribing second-generation antihistamines (SGAs) over first-generation antihistamines because SGAs are less likely to cause sedation and impairment of heavy work performance. However, common residents who use these antihistamines as over-the-counter (OTC) medicines are less likely to know that. So, this study was designed to compare the over-the-counter use of antihistamines by common residents with the prescribing preferences of physicians residing at Dhaka City, Bangladesh. Between June and August of 2017, a total of 100 Physicians from some of the top medical institutions of the city and 350 randomly selected common residents were directly interviewed with two separate semistructured questionnaires specifically designed for each population. Data was statistically analyzed using Fischer’s exact test, Spearman’s rank correlation test and Kendall’s tau rank correlation test. The data shows that physicians prefer second-generation antihistamines with fexofenadine (48.09% of the total responses), desloratadine (16.03%), and rupatadine (13.74%) taking the top spots. Cetirizine (29.46% of total responses), desloratadine (14.73%), and chlorpheniramine (14.52%) were the most used OTC antihistamines by the common residents. Statistical analysis with Fischer’s exact test revealed that the difference in preference of first-generation antihistamines between physicians and common residents were extremely significant (). Furthermore, cetirizine (which is known to have some degree of sedating activity) and chlorpheniramine are more preferred among common residents than among physicians (extremely significant difference, in both cases). The study concludes that physicians of Dhaka City are complying with practice guidelines, but sedating antihistamines still retain some popularity among the common residents. Hence, a more engaging community pharmacy is needed to minimize adverse effects that can arise from OTC use of sedating antihistamines.
Investigating the Effect of Prompt Treatment on Malaria Prevalence in Children Aged below Five Years in Zambia: A Nested Case-Control Study in a Cross-Sectional Survey
Background. In a highly malaria endemic country like Zambia, prompt treatment of cases is known to reduce morbidity and mortality; however, it is not known whether it has a role as an effective prevention strategy because of the presence of asymptomatic chronic carriers who do not seek treatment and maintain the reservoirs of infection in the population. This study investigated the role of treatment of malaria cases as a prevention strategy in low, moderate, and high endemic settings. Methods. A nested case-control design was employed using datasets from a large countrywide national Malaria Indicator Survey of 2015. Self-reported malaria cases (n = 209) who took treatment in the two weeks preceding the survey were matched with controls (n = 511) who did not report malaria and did not take treatment during the same period using nearest neighbour propensity score matching for age, sex, and district. The data were analysed using conditional logistic regression in STATA version 15.1. Results. The malaria cases were more likely to be from rural areas (), poorest households (), and who lived in improvised housing structures () compared with the controls. Data from low and moderate malaria endemic areas did not have sufficient cases for the analysis to proceed; however, data from high endemic areas showed borderline evidence () that prompt treatment reduces the risk of malaria by almost half in the short-term aOR 0.057 (95% CI 0.32–1.01). Conclusion. We found borderline evidence which suggests that prompt treatment of malaria cases even in high endemic areas has potential to reduce the risk of malaria by almost half in the short term.