Advances in Public Health
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Advances in Public Health publishes original research articles and review articles in all areas of public health.

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Research Article

Magnitude of Prompt HIV-Seropositive Status Disclosure to Partner and Associated Factors among Adult Clients on ART at Holeta Health Center, Central Ethiopia, 2020

Background. Disclosure of HIV-seropositive status is important for HIV prevention and maintenance of health for people living with HIV and the community at large. Most of the disclosure in our country and elsewhere were after putting the partner at risk of contracting HIV/AIDS. This study aimed to assess prompt HIV-seropositive status disclosure to partner and its associated factors among people living with HIV and attending care and treatment at a health center, in central Ethiopia. Methods. A cross-sectional study was carried out from September 15, 2019, to March 15, 2020, among 438 people living with HIV who were more than 18 years old and had sexual partner attending ART clinic at Holeta Health Center, central Ethiopia. The data were collected through face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire. The data were entered into Epi data version 3.1 and exported to SPSS version 21 for analysis. Descriptive analysis was conducted to determine the magnitude of prompt HIV seropositive status disclosure to partner and multivariable logistic regression analysis was computed to identify factors associated with prompt HIV seropositive status disclosure. Results. A total of 434 study participants took part in this study giving a response rate of 99%. Three hundred thirteen (72.1%) respondents disclosed their seropositive status to their partners promptly. Being married (AOR = 2.99, 95% CI = 1.09–8.21), less than 24-months duration on treatment (AOR = 0.185, 95% CI = 0.076–0.454), discouraging response of partner about the test (AOR = 0.34, 95% CI = 0.0149–0.780), knowing serostatus of one’s own partner (AOR = 10.42, 95% CI = 4.19–25.19), and using condom always with a partner (AOR = 11.44, 95% CI = 3.37–38.79) were factors significantly associated with prompt HIV seropositive status disclosure to partner. Conclusion. The proportion of prompt disclosure of HIV seropositive status to partner was low when compared to the overall partner disclosure rate. Being in marriage, less than 24 months duration on treatment, discouraging response of partner about the test, knowing serostatus of one’s partner, and using condom always with a partner were identified as predictors of prompt HIV seropositive status disclosure to partner.

Research Article

Factors Influencing the Practice of Breast Self-Examination among Female Tertiary Students in Ho, Ghana

Background. Despite the implementation of various interventions towards the reduction of breast cancer prevalence, many women still report late symptoms to health facilities, and this decreases their chances of survival. Breast self-examination (BSE) is the most convenient form of examination to detect the development of breast cancer. We examined the factors that influence the practice of breast self-examination among female tertiary students in Ho, Volta Region of Ghana. Methods. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study that recruited 506 female students from four tertiary institutions in the Ho Municipality in Ghana using questionnaires. Descriptive and inferential statistics comprising frequency, percentage, Chi-square, and binary logistic regression were used in analyzing the data. Results. About 73% of the respondents had ever practised BSE. Out of the respondents who have ever practiced BSE, 79% were practising it at the time of the study. Students in their fourth year were above 4 times more likely (95% CI = 1.73–9.29, ) to practise BSE than those in their first year. Also, students with good knowledge of BSE were 4 times more likely to practice BSE [(95% CI = 1.1–13.46), ] and students with good perception about BSE were 12 times more likely to practice BSE [(95% CI = 1.21–122.73), ]. Conclusion. The study found that 27% of the female students had never practised BSE. Those who practice BSE did not practice regularly and appropriately. Also, good knowledge and perception are associated with the practice of BSE. The implication of this result is the late presentation of breast cancer cases to health facilities and increases in breast cancer-related deaths in the country. Therefore, it is recommended that the Ministry of Health, the Ghana Health Service, and other stakeholders in Ghana’s healthcare should develop and implement innovative approaches and policies such as peer and support groups’ learning, and mass media BSE awareness aimed at ensuring better understanding and access to BSE education. This should be intensified during the foundation years such as the secondary and tertiary education levels to ensure the adoption of breast self-examination practice. It is also recommended that another study must be done using a qualitative approach to get an in-depth understanding of the steps and ways, by which female students practice BSE.

Research Article

Timely Attendance of the First Antenatal Care among Pregnant Women Aged 15–49 Living with HIV in Juba, South Sudan

Timely attendance of the first antenatal care (ANC) is the period in which pregnant women visit ANC less than four months of pregnancy. There is a paucity of data on timely first ANC attendance and its associated factors among pregnant women living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Juba. The aim of this study was to investigate timely attendance of the first ANC visit among pregnant women living with HIV. Institutional cross-sectional study was conducted in three public health facilities in Juba by convenience sampling from January 2019 to December 2019. Pearson’s chi-squared test was conducted for bivariate analysis and variables with probability values ( values) less than 5% were considered as statistically significant for multivariable analyses using Fisher’s exact test. At the multivariate level, binary logistic regression analysis was conducted. Out of the 192 participants studied, 27 (14.1%) had timely first ANC attendance as recommended and 165 (85.9%) attended first ANC at four months and above. Distances (adjusted risk ratio [aOR], 7.14; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.40–36.68), ANC card (aOR, 3.48; 95% CI, 1.17–10.40), waiting time ([aOR], 0.04; 95% CI, 0.01–0.75), and prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) services (aOR, 0.12; 95% CI, 0.03–0.56) were the factors associated with timely first ANC attendance. Health education interventions targeting pregnant women attending ANC at health facilities should focus on increasing knowledge and awareness of the importance of timely first ANC attendance.

Research Article

Measles-Rubella Positivity Rate and Associated Factors in Pre-Mass and Post-Mass Vaccination Periods: Analysis of Uganda Routine Surveillance Laboratory Data

Toward 2019, Uganda experienced an extensive outbreak of measles and rubella. The Uganda National Expanded Programme on Immunization implemented a mass measles-rubella vaccination campaign aimed at halting the ongoing transmission. This study determined the changes in the disease burden thereafter. We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study on measles-rubella positivity and its associated factors in Uganda using 1697 case-based surveillance data for 2019 and 2020 stratified into two dispensations: prevaccination and postvaccination campaigns. Statistical tests employed in STATA 15 included chi-square, Fisher’s exact, and binomial tests. Measles positivity rates in the period before and after the mass immunization campaign were 41.88% (95% CI: 39.30–44.51) and 37.96% (95% CI: 32.81–43.40), respectively. For rubella, the positivity rate in the precampaign season was 21.73% (95% CI: 19.61–23.99) and in the postvaccination season was 6.65% (95% CI: 4.36–10.00). Binomial tests indicated that postcampaign positivity rates were significantly lower than the precampaign rate for measles () and rubella (). Generally, age (χ2 = 58.94, /χ2 = 51.91, ) and vaccination status (χ2 = 60.48, /χ2 = 16.90, ) were associated with the measles positivity rate in both pre/postcampaign periods. Rubella positivity rate was associated with vaccination status (χ2 = 32.97, /) in both periods and age in the precampaign season (). The measles-rubella mass campaign lessened rubella burden remarkably, but barely adequate change was observed in the extent of spread of measles. Children aged less than 9 months are at higher chances of testing positive amidst low vaccination levels among the eligible. The immunization programme must attain and maintain routine immunization coverage at 95% or more and roll out a second-dose measles-rubella vaccination to sustain the reduced disease burden.

Research Article

Assessment of Factors Affecting Time to Recovery from COVID-19: A Retrospective Study in Ethiopia

Background. The average duration of recovery from COVID-19 and influencing factors, which would help inform optimal control strategies, remain unclear. Moreover, studies regarding this issue are limited in Ethiopia, and no region-wise studies were conducted. Hence, this study aimed to investigate the median recovery time from COVID-19, and its predictors among patients admitted to Amhara regional state COVID-19 treatment centers, Ethiopia. Methods. A facility-based retrospective follow-up study was conducted at Amhara regional state COVID-19 treatment centers from 13 March 2020 through 30 March 2021. Data were entered using EpiData version 3.1, and STATA version 14 was used for analysis. A Kaplan–Meier curve was used to estimate survival time, and the Cox regression model was fitted to identify independent predictors. value with 95% CI for the hazard ratio was used for testing the significance at alpha 0.05. Results. Six hundred twenty-two cases followed, and 540 observations developed an event at the end of the follow-up. The median time to recovery was 11 days with an interquartile range of 9–14 days. Most of the patients were recovered from COVID-19 between days seven and fourteen. In the first six days of admission, only 4.2% of cases had recovered, but by day 14, 73.8% had recovered. Patients without comorbid illness/s were faster to recover than their counterparts (AHR = 1.44 : 95% CI: 1.10, 1.91) and those who have signs and symptoms on admission (AHR = 0.42 : 95% CI: 0.30, 0.60) and old-aged (AHR = 0.988; 95% CI: 0.982, 0.994) took longer to recover. Conclusion. In conclusion, a relatively short median recovery time was found in this study. Significant predictors for delayed recovery from COVID-19 were older age, presence of symptoms at admission, and having at least one comorbid condition. These factors should be placed under consideration while developing a strategy for quarantining and treating COVID-19 patients.

Research Article

Prevalence and Predictors of COVID-19 Vaccine Hesitancy among Health Care Workers in Tertiary Health Care Institutions in a Developing Country: A Cross-Sectional Analytical Study

Background. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic highlighted the challenges and impact of vaccine hesitancy and the role of health care institutions in mounting an effective pandemic response. The study objective was to determine the prevalence and predictors of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among health care workers in tertiary health care institutions in Nigeria. Methods. A cross-sectional analytical design that used convenience and snowballing techniques to enroll 347 health care workers from tertiary health care institutions in Imo State, Nigeria, from September 28 to October 14, 2021. Data was collected using a structured online questionnaire and bivariate and multivariate analyses were done using SPSS at a level of significance set at . Result. The prevalence of vaccine hesitancy was 35.4%. HCWs of the Pentecostal faith (aOR: 2.52) and males (aOR: 2.72) were significantly more likely to be COVID-19 vaccine hesitant. About 30% of the respondents reported that they trusted information from the Internet and social media relating to COVID-19 and its vaccine. However, respondents who felt there was enough information about the vaccine and its safety were more than two and a half times more likely to be vaccine-hesitant (aOR: 2.77). About 20% and 31% of the respondents, respectively, stated that the government has an ulterior motive and that they did not trust the vaccine manufacturers. However, respondents who do not trust the government were more than two and a half times more likely to be COVID-19 vaccine hesitant (aOR: 2.69). Conclusion. The issues of vaccine hesitancy among health care workers in a developing country appear to be fundamental and very challenging to resolve. Therefore, the approach of instituting government vaccine uptake mandates for health care workers may be the solution for tackling vaccine hesitancy in health care institutions.

Advances in Public Health
 Journal metrics
See full report
Acceptance rate6%
Submission to final decision94 days
Acceptance to publication18 days
CiteScore-
Journal Citation Indicator-
Impact Factor-
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Article of the Year Award: Outstanding research contributions of 2020, as selected by our Chief Editors. Read the winning articles.