Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Advances in Public Health
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 257396, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/257396
Review Article

Eating Behaviours and Body Weight Concerns among Adolescent Girls

1 Department of Anthropology, University of Calcutta, 35 Ballygunge Circular Road, Kolkata 700 019, India
2Biological Anthropology Unit, Indian Statistical Institute, 203 B.T. Road, Kolkata 108, India

Received 1 June 2014; Accepted 3 July 2014; Published 16 July 2014

Academic Editor: Julio Diaz

Copyright © 2014 Nadira Mallick et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. M. Story, D. Neumark-Sztainer, and S. French, “Individual and environmental influences on adolescent eating behaviors.,” Journal of the American Dietetic Association, vol. 102, no. 3, pp. S40–S51, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. H. N. Madanat, R. Lindsay, and T. Campbell, “Young urban women and the nutrition transition in Jordan,” Public Health Nutrition, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 599–604, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. American Psychiatric Association, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: DSM-IV, American Psychiatric Association, Washington, DC, USA, 4th edition, 1994.
  4. M. Tsai, Y. Chang, P. Lien, and Y. Wong, “Survey on eating disorders related thoughts, behaviors and dietary intake in female junior high school students in Taiwan,” Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 196–205, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. E. C. Weiss, D. A. Galuska, L. K. Khan, and M. K. Serdula, “Weight-control practices among US adults, 2001-2002,” The American Journal of Preventive Medicine, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 18–24, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. C. Costa, E. Ramos, M. Severo, H. Barros, and C. Lopes, “Determinants of eating disorders symptomatology in Portuguese adolescents,” Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, vol. 162, no. 12, pp. 1126–1132, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. D. Neumark-Sztainer, M. E. Eisenberg, J. A. Fulkerson, M. Story, and N. I. Larson, “Family meals and disordered eating in adolescents: longitudinal findings from Project EAT,” Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, vol. 162, no. 1, pp. 17–22, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. A. J. Hill and J. A. Franklin, “Mothers, daughters and dieting: investigating the transmission of weight control,” British Journal of Clinical Psychology, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 3–13, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. L. Smolak, M. P. Levine, and F. Schermer, “Parental input and weight concerns among elementary school children,” International Journal of Eating Disorders, vol. 25, pp. 263–271, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  10. R. Monge-Rojas, H. P. Nuñez, C. Garita, and M. Chen-Mok, “Psychosocial aspects of Costa Rican adolescents' eating and physical activity patterns,” Journal of Adolescent Health, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 212–219, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. C. W. Baker, T. D. Little, and K. D. Brownell, “Predicting adolescent eating and activity behaviors: the role of social norms and personal agency,” Health Psychology, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 189–198, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. L. J. Favor, Food as Foe: Nutrition and Eating Disorders, Courtesy of the National Academic Press, Washington, DC, USA, 2007.
  13. A. E. Field, C. A. Camargo Jr., C. B. Taylor, C. S. Berkey, and G. A. Colditz, “Relation of peer and media influences to the development of purging behaviors among preadolescent and adolescent girls,” Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, vol. 153, no. 11, pp. 1184–1189, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. T. F. Cash and T. Pruzinsky, Body Image: A Handbook of Theory, Research and Clinical Practice, The Guildford Press, London, UK, 1st edition, 2004.
  15. J. Demarest and R. Allen, “Body image: gender, ethnic, and age differences,” Journal of Social Psychology, vol. 140, no. 4, pp. 465–472, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. J. M. Jones, S. Bennett, M. P. Olmsted, M. L. Lawson, and G. Rodin, “Disordered eating attitudes and behaviours in teenaged girls: a school-based study,” CMAJ, vol. 165, no. 5, pp. 547–552, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. A. E. Becker, R. A. Burwell, S. E. Gilman, D. B. Herzog, and P. Hamburg, “Eating behaviours and attitudes following prolonged exposure to television among ethnic Fijian adolescent girls,” British Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 180, pp. 509–514, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. N. K. Abraham and C. L. Birmingham, “Is there evidence that religion is a risk factor for eating disorders?” Eating and Weight Disorders, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. e75–e78, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. D. Neumark-Sztainer and P. J. Hannan, “Weight-related behaviors among adolescent girls and boys: results from a national survey,” Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, vol. 154, no. 6, pp. 569–577, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. J. Wardle and L. Marsland, “Adolescent concerns about weight and eating; a social-developmental perspective,” Journal of Psychosomatic Research, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 377–391, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. L. Kann, C. W. Warren, W. A. Harris et al., “Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance—United States, 1995,” Journal of School Health, vol. 66, no. 10, pp. 365–377, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. J. A. Grunbaum, L. Kann, S. Kinchen et al., “Youth risk behavior surveillance: United States, 2003 (Abridged),” Journal of School Health, vol. 74, no. 8, pp. 307–324, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. J. M. Eagles, M. I. Johnston, D. Hunter, M. Lobban, and H. R. Millar, “Increasing incidence of anorexia nervosa in the female population of northeast Scotland,” American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 152, no. 9, pp. 1266–1271, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. H. E. Ross and F. Ivis, “Binge eating and substance use among male and female adolescents,” International Journal of Eating Disorders, vol. 26, pp. 245–260, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  25. D. Neumark-Sztainer, M. Story, L. B. Dixon, and D. M. Murray, “Adolescents engaging in unhealthy weight control behaviors: are they at risk for other health-comprising behaviors?” American Journal of Public Health, vol. 88, no. 6, pp. 952–955, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. H. Crawley and R. Shergill-Bonner, “The nutrient and food intakes of 16-17 year old female dieters in the UK,” Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 25–34, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. D. Neumark-Sztainer, M. Wall, M. Story, and J. A. Fulkerson, “Are family meal patterns associated with disordered eating behaviors among adolescents?” Journal of Adolescent Health, vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 350–359, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. E. Stice, “A prospective test of the dual-pathway model of bulimic pathology: mediating effects of dieting and negative affect,” Journal of Abnormal Psychology, vol. 110, no. 1, pp. 124–135, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. E. Stice, K. Presnell, L. Groesz, and H. Shaw, “Effects of a weight maintenance diet on bulimic symptoms in adolescent girls: an experimental test of the dietary restraint theory,” Health Psychology, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 402–412, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. D. Neumark-Sztainer, S. J. Paxton, P. J. Hannan, J. Haines, and M. Story, “Does Body Satisfaction Matter? Five-year Longitudinal Associations between Body Satisfaction and Health Behaviors in Adolescent Females and Males,” Journal of Adolescent Health, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 244–251, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. G. C. Patton, R. Selzer, C. Coffey, J. B. Carlin, and R. Wolfe, “Onset of adolescent eating disorders: population based cohort study over 3 years,” British Medical Journal, vol. 318, pp. 765–768, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. C. C. Strauss, “Personal and interpersonal characteristics associated with childhood obesity,” Journal of Pediatric Psychology, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 337–343, 1985. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. J. G. Johnson, P. Cohen, S. Kasen, and J. S. Brook, “Childhood adversities associated with risk for eating disorders or weight problems during adolescence or early adulthood,” The American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 159, no. 3, pp. 394–400, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. A. Fagot-Campagna, D. J. Pettitt, M. M. Engelgau et al., “Type 2 diabetes among North American children and adolescents: an epidemiologic review and a public health perspective,” Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 136, no. 5, pp. 664–672, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. S. Zipfel, B. Löwe, D. L. Reas, H. Deter, and W. Herzog, “Long-term prognosis in anorexia nervosa: lessons from a 21-year follow-up study,” The Lancet, vol. 355, no. 9205, pp. 721–722, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. R. J. Kuczmarski, C. L. Ogden, S. S. Guo et al., “CDC growth charts for the United States: methods and development,” Vital and Health Statistics, vol. 11, pp. 1–190, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  37. C. L. Ogden, K. M. Flegal, M. D. Carroll, and C. L. Johnson, “Prevalence and trends in overweight among US children and adolescents, 1999–2000,” The Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 288, no. 14, pp. 1728–1732, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. E. Kjelsås, C. Bjørnstrøm, and K. G. Götestam, “Prevalence of eating disorders in female and male adolescents (14-15 years),” Eating Behaviors, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 13–25, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. M. Yannakoulia, D. Karayiannis, M. Terzidou, A. Kokkevi, and L. S. Sidossis, “Nutrition-related habits of Greek adolescents,” European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 58, no. 4, pp. 580–586, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. T. A. Nicklas, L. Myers, C. Reger, B. Beech, and G. S. Berenson, “Impact of breakfast consumption on nutritional adequacy of the diets of young adults in Bogalusa, Louisiana: ethnic and gender contrasts,” Journal of the American Dietetic Association, vol. 98, no. 12, pp. 1432–1438, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. P. Gleason and C. Suitor, “Children’s diets in the mid-1990s: dietary intake and its relationship with school meal participation special nutrition programmes,” Report no. CN-01-CD1, US Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service, Alexandria, Va, USA, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  42. R. Wahl, “Nutrition in the adolescent,” Pediatric Annals, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 107–111, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. I. Attie and J. Brooks-Gunn, “Devolopemental issues in the study of eating problems and disorders,” in The Etiology of Bulimia Nervosa: The Individual and Familial Context, J. H. Crowther, D. L. Tennenbaum, S. E. Hobfoll, and M. A. P. Stevens, Eds., pp. 35–59, Hemisphere, Washington, DC, USA, 1992. View at Google Scholar
  44. E. Lynch, K. Liu, B. Spring, A. Hankinson, G. S. Wei, and P. Greenland, “Association of ethnicity and socioeconomic status with judgments of body size: the coronary artery risk development in young Adults (CARDIA) study,” The American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 165, no. 9, pp. 1055–1062, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. World Health Organization, “Obesity: Preventing and Managing the Global Epidemic,” http://www.who.int/nutrition/publications/obesity/WHO_TRS_894/en/.
  46. M. Grigg, J. Bowman, and S. Redman, “Disordered eating and unhealthy weight reduction practices among adolescent females,” Preventive Medicine, vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 748–756, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. J. Polivy and C. P. Herman, “Dieting and binging. A causal analysis,” The American Psychologist, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 193–201, 1985. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. J. D. Killen, C. B. Taylor, M. J. Telch, K. E. Saylor, D. J. Maron, and T. N. Robinson, “Self-induced vomiting and laxative and diuretic use among teenagers. Precursors of the binge-purge syndrome?” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 255, no. 11, pp. 1447–1449, 1986. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. J. Croll, D. Neumark-Sztainer, M. Story, and M. Ireland, “Prevalence and risk and protective factors related to disordered eating behaviors among adolescents: relationship to gender and ethnicity,” Journal of Adolescent Health, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 166–175, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. L. Peternel and A. Sujoldžić, “Adolescents eating behavior, body image and psychological well-being,” Collegium Antropologicum, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 205–212, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. S. J. Paxton, E. H. Wertheim, K. Gibbons, G. I. Szmukler, L. Hillier, and J. L. Petrovich, “Body image satisfaction, dieting beliefs, and weight loss behaviors in adolescent girls and boys,” Journal of Youth and Adolescence, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 361–379, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. E. H. Wertheim, S. J. Paxton, D. Maude, G. I. Szmukler, K. Gibbons, and L. Hiller, “Psychosocial predictors of weight loss behaviors and binge eating in adolescent girls and boys,” International Journal of Eating Disorders, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 151–160, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. U. Berger, C. Schilke, and B. Strauß, “Weight concerns and dieting among 8 to 12-year-old children,” PPmP Psychotherapie Psychosomatik Medizinische Psychologie, vol. 55, no. 7, pp. 331–338, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. A. L. Toselli, S. Villani, A. M. Ferro, A. Verri, L. Cucurullo, and A. Marinoni, “Eating disorders and their correlates in high school adolescents of Northern Italy,” Epidemiologia e Psichiatria Sociale, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 91–99, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. J. S. Vander Wal and M. H. Thelen, “Eating and body image concerns among obese and average-weight children,” Addictive Behaviors, vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 775–778, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. L. Wichstrom, “Social, psychological and physical correlates of eating problems: a study of the general adolescent population in Norway,” Psychological Medicine, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 567–579, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. L. L. Farrales and G. E. Chapman, “Filipino women living in Canada: constructing meanings of body, food, and health,” Health Care for Woman International, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 179–194, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. P. S. Jennings, D. Forbes, B. McDermott, G. Hulse, and S. Juniper, “Eating disorder attitudes and psychopathology in Caucasian Australian, Asian Australian and Thai university students,” Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 143–149, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. C. R. Lorenzo, P. W. Lavori, and J. D. Lock, “Eating attitudes in high school students in the Philippines: a preliminary study,” Eating and Weight Disorders : EWD, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 202–209, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. B. Xie, C. H. Liu, C. P. Chou et al., “Weight perception and psychological factors in Chinese adolescents,” Journal of Adolescent Health, vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 202–210, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. Y. Luo, W. L. Parish, and E. O. Laumann, “A population-based study of body image concerns among urban Chinese adults,” Body Image, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 333–345, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. T. F. Ho, B. C. Tai, E. L. Lee, S. Cheng, and P. H. Liow, “Prevalence and profile of females at risk of eating disorders in Singapore,” Singapore Medical Journal, vol. 47, no. 6, pp. 499–503, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. L. S. Adair, “Dramatic rise in overweight and obesity in adult Filipino women and risk of hypertension,” Obesity Research, vol. 12, no. 8, pp. 1335–1341, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. Y. Chang, W. Lin, and Y. Wong, “Survey on eating disorder-related thoughts, behaviors, and their relationship with food intake and nutritional status in female high school students in Taiwan,” Journal of the American College of Nutrition, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 39–48, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. V. Eapen, A. A. Mabrouk, and S. Bin-Othman, “Disordered eating attitudes and symptomatology among adolescent girls in the United Arab Emirates,” Eating Behaviors, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 53–60, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. A. S. Al-Subaie, “Eating attitudes test in Arabic: Psychometric features and normative data,” Saudi Medical Journal, vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 769–775, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. S. Al-Adawi, A. S. S. Dorvlo, D. T. Burke, S. Al-Bahlani, R. G. Martin, and S. Al-Ismaily, “Presence and severity of anorexia and bulimia among male and female omani and non-omani adolescents,” Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, vol. 41, no. 9, pp. 1124–1130, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. A. Apter, M. Abu Shah, I. Iancu, H. Abramovitch, A. Weizman, and S. Tyano, “Cultural effects on eating attitudes in Israeli subpopulations and hospitalized anorectics,” Genetic, Social, and General Psychology Monographs, vol. 120, no. 1, pp. 83–99, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. N. R. Maor, S. Sayag, R. Dahan, and D. Hermoni, “Eating attitudes among adolescents,” Israel Medical Association Journal, vol. 8, no. 9, pp. 627–629, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. I. Sharma, “Trends in the intake of ready-to-eat food among urban school children in Nepal,” SCN News, vol. 16, pp. 21–22, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  71. Working group report on Adolescents-of Planning Commission, 2013, http://www.planningcommission.nic.in/aboutus/committee/wrkgrp/wg_adolcnts.pdf.
  72. S. K. Mishra and S. Mukhopadhyay, “Eating and weight concerns among Sikkimese adolescent girls and their biocultural correlates: An exploratory study,” Public Health Nutrition, vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 853–859, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. R. Chugh and S. Puri, “Affluent adolescent girls of Delhi: eating and weight concerns,” British Journal of Nutrition, vol. 86, no. 4, pp. 535–542, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. D. Bhugra, K. Bhui, and K. R. Gupta, “Bulimic disorders and sociocentric values in north india,” Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 86–93, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. G. Kapoor and S. Aneja, “Nutritional disorders in adolescent girls,” Indian Pediatrics, vol. 29, no. 8, pp. 969–973, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. T. N. Srinivasan, T. R. Suresh, V. Jayaram et al., “Eating disorders in India,” Indian Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 37, pp. 26–30, 1995. View at Google Scholar
  77. T. N. Srinivasan, T. R. Suresh, and V. Jayaram, “Emergence of eating disorders in India. Study of eating distress syndrome and development of a screening questionnaire,” International Journal of Social Psychiatry, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 189–198, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. L. F. Augustine and R. H. Poojara, “Prevalane of obesity, weight perceptions and weight control practices among urban college going girls,” Indian Journal of Community Medicine, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 187–190, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  79. K. S. Latha, S. Hegde, S. M. Bhat, P. S. V. N. Sharma, and P. Rai, “Body image, self-esteem and depression in female adolescent college students,” Journal of Indian Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 78–84, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. D. N. Mendhekar, K. Arora, D. Lohia, A. Aggarwal, and R. C. Jiloha, “Anorexia nervosa: an Indian perspective,” National Medical Journal of India, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 181–182, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. H. Edmunds and A. J. Hill, “Dieting and the family context of eating in young adolescent children,” International Journal of Eating Disorders, vol. 25, pp. 435–440, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  82. S. H. Thompson, A. C. Rafiroiu, and R. G. Sargent, “Examining gender, racial, and age differences in weight concern among third, fifth, eight, and elevent graders,” Eating Behaviors, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 307–323, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. A. E. Field, C. A. Camargo Jr., C. B. Taylor, C. S. Berkey, S. B. Roberts, and G. A. Colditz, “Peer, parent, and media influences on the development of weight concerns and frequent dieting among preadolescent and adolescent girls and boys,” Pediatrics, vol. 107, no. 1, pp. 54–60, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. R. H. Striegel-Moore and A. Kearney-Cooke, “Exploring parents' attitudes and behaviors about their children's physical appearance,” International Journal of Eating Disorders, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 377–385, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. M. H. Thelen and J. F. Cormier, “Desire to be thinner and weight control among children and their parents,” Behavior Therapy, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 85–99, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. L. Rogers, M. D. Resnick, J. E. Mitchell et al., “The relationship between socioeconomic status and eating-disordered behaviors in a community sample of adolescent girls,” International Journal of Eating Disorders, vol. 22, pp. 15–23, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  87. A. A. Caradas, E. V. Lambert, and K. E. Charlton, “An ethnic comparison of eating attitudes and associated body image concerns in adolescent south African school girl,” Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, vol. 14, pp. 111–120, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  88. A. D. Powell and A. S. Kahn, “Racial differences in women's desires to be thin,” International Journal of Eating Disorders, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 191–195, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. K. J. Flynn and M. Fitzgibbon, “Body images and obesity risk among black females: a review of the literature,” Annals of Behavioral Medicine, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 13–24, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. R. M. Gardner, B. N. Friedman, and N. A. Jackson, “Body size estimations, body dissatisfaction, and ideal size preferences in children six through thirteen,” Journal of Youth and Adolescence, vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 603–618, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. H. Bruch, “Developmental considerations on anorexia nervosa and obesity,” Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 212–217, 1981. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. L. Kann, S. A. Kinchen, B. I. Williams et al., “Youth risk behavior Surveillance-United States, 1997,” Journal of School Health, vol. 68, no. 9, pp. 355–369, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. “The 2013 Vermont Youth Risk Behavior Survey,” http://healthvermont.gov/research/yrbs/2013/documents/2013_yrbs_full_report.pdf .
  94. A. M. Gustafson-Larson and R. D. Terry, “Weight-related behaviors and concerns of fourth-grade children,” Journal of the American Dietetic Association, vol. 92, no. 7, pp. 818–822, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  95. L. J. Heinberg, “Theories of body image disturbance: perceptual, developmental and sociocultural models,” in Body Image, Eating Disorders and Obesity, K. Thompson, Ed., pp. 27–47, American Psychological Association, Washington, DC, USA, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  96. C. V. Wiseman, J. J. Gray, J. E. Mosimann, and A. H. Ahrens, “Cultural expectations of thinness in women: an update,” International Journal of Eating Disorders, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 85–89, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  97. S. A. Washi and M. B. Ageib, “Poor diet quality and food habits are related to impaired nutritional status in 13- to 18-year-old adolescents in Jeddah,” Nutrition Research, vol. 30, no. 8, pp. 527–534, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  98. R. C. Adamson, N. Crombie, and T. Kirk, “A critique of the effects of snacking on body weight status,” European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 50, no. 12, pp. 779–783, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  99. M. P. Levine and K. Harrison, “The role of mass media in the perpetuation and prevention of negative body image and disordered eating,” in Handbook of Eating Disorders and Obesity, J. K. Thompson, Ed., pp. 695–717, John Wiley, New York, NY, USA, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  100. A. Nishina, N. Y. Ammon, A. D. Bellmore, and S. Graham, “Body dissatisfaction and physical development among ethnic minority adolescents,” Journal of Youth and Adolescence, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 179–191, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  101. A. E. Becker, K. E. Fay, J. Agnew-Blais, A. N. Khan, R. H. Striegel-Moore, and S. E. Gilman, “Social network media exposure and adolescent eating pathology in Fiji,” British Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 198, no. 1, pp. 43–50, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  102. M. Tiggemann and A. S. Pickering, “Role of television in adolescent women's body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness,” International Journal of Eating Disorders, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 199–203, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  103. K. Harrison, “Ourselves, our bodies: thin-ideal media, self-discrepancies, and eating disorder symptomatology in adolescents,” Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 289–323, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  104. G. Cafri, Y. Yamamiya, M. Brannick, and J. K. Thompson, “The influence of sociocultural factors on body image: a meta-analysis,” Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 421–433, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  105. H. A. Hausenblas, A. Campbell, J. E. Menzel, J. Doughty, M. Levine, and J. K. Thompson, “Media effects of experimental presentation of the ideal physique on eating disorder symptoms: a meta-analysis of laboratory studies,” Clinical Psychology Review, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 168–181, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  106. D. Clay, V. L. Vignoles, and H. Dittmar, “Body image and self-esteem among adolescent girls: testing the influence of sociocultural factors,” Journal of Research on Adolescence, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 451–477, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  107. A. E. Field, S. B. Austin, C. A. Camargo Jr. et al., “Exposure to the mass media, body shape concerns, and use of supplements to improve weight and shape among male and female adolescents,” Pediatrics, vol. 116, no. 2, pp. e214–e220, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  108. L. J. Hofschire and B. S. Greenberg, “Media’s impact on adolescents’ body dissatisfaction,” in Sexual Teens, Sexual Media, J. D. Brown, J. R. Steele, and K. Walsh-Childers, Eds., pp. 125–149, Lawrence Erlbaum, Mahwah, NJ, USA, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  109. D. C. Jones, T. H. Vigfusdottir, and Y. Lee, “Body image and the appearance culture among adolescent girls and boys: an examination of friend conversations, peer criticism, appearance magazines, and the internalization of appearance ideals,” Journal of Adolescent Research, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 323–339, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  110. D. L. G. Borzekowski, S. Schenk, J. L. Wilson, and R. Peebles, “E-Ana and e-Mia: a content analysis of pro-eating disorder web sites,” The American Journal of Public Health, vol. 100, no. 8, pp. 1526–1534, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  111. “Obesity, eating disorders, and the media,” in Children, Adolescents and the Media, V. C. Strasburger, B. J. Wilson, and A. B. Jordon, Eds., pp. 337–400, Sage, Thousand Oaks, Calif, USA, 2013.
  112. P. Pingali, “Westernisation of Asian Diets and the Transformation of Food Systems: Implications for Research and Policy,” 2004, http://www.abengoa.es/export/sites/abengoa_corp/resources/pdf/biofuels/Food_prices/1_P_Pingali.pdf.
  113. B. M. Popkin, L. S. Adair, and S. W. Ng, “Global nutrition transition and the pandemic of obesity in developing countries,” Nutrition Reviews, vol. 70, no. 1, pp. 3–21, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  114. N. Vaida, “Prevalence of fast food intake among urban adolescent students,” The International Journal of Engineering and Science, vol. 2, pp. 353–359, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  115. “Working moms spend less time daily on kids’ diet, exercise,” http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/08/120827162011.htm.