Table 8: Out of pocket (OOP) expenditure as a % of total household expenditure and impoverishment due to OOP.

YearMean OOP as % of total HH expenditure Mean OOP as % of total HH expenditure by expenditure quintile% HH having catastrophic expenditure at OOP expenditure >10% of total HH expenditurePeople impoverished due to OOP
Poorest2nd poorestMiddle2nd richestRichest

1993-944.393.254.194.685.235.4515.12%4.0%
2004-055.51 4.00 5.01 5.92 6.69 7.09 17.25% 4.4%

Source: Ghosh S., 2010 [5]. Note: the cross-sectional data taken by the author are taken from the fiftieth (1993-94) and sixty-first (2005) rounds of national and state representative surveys on “consumption expenditure,” collected by the National Sample Survey Organization, India.