Advances in Public Health / 2015 / Article / Tab 2

Review Article

Prevalence of Cardiovascular Disease and Associated Risk Factors among Adult Population in the Gulf Region: A Systematic Review

Table 2

Characteristics and prevalence data of the included studies on the burden of CVD risk factors in the GCC region.

Reference
country
Year(s) of surveyTotal sampleAge, mean, and min to maxSampling methodsStudy designResponse rate (%)Diagnostic criteria and/or dietary assessment methodsThe main findings and prevalence data Quality assessment checklist (*)

[27]
Saudi Arabia
1996-19971,649
M: 1,175
F: 474
≥40Random stratified sampling Cross-sectional study76.6HC: TC >6.2 mmol/L/overweight BMI for men ≥27.2 women ≥26.9/HTN: SBP ≥140 mmHg or DBP ≥95 or on medicationOverweight 49.8%/HTN 19.9%/current smoking 18.8%, HC:
overall 10.1%
M: 10.3%
F: 9.7%
1-Y, 2-Y, 3-Y, 4-Y, 5-Y, 6-N, 7-NA

[28]
Saudi Arabia
1990–199310,651
M: 50.8%
F: 49.2%
≥20Multistage stratified cluster sampling National epidemiological cross-sectional survey69Overweight and obesity defined according the WHO criteriaOverweight: overall 31.2%
M 33.1%, F 29.4%, U 33.6%, R 28.3%
Obesity: overall 22.1%,
M 17.8%, F 26.6%, U 25.6%, and R 17.6%
1-Y, 2-Y, 3-Y, 4-Y, 5-Y, 6-N, 7-NA

[29]
Saudi Arabia
1995–200016917
M: 8002
F: 8804
30–70Two-stage stratified cluster sampling National epidemiological cross-sectional survey 98.2DM was defined according to the WHO DM: overall 23.7%,
M 26.2%, F 21.5%, U 25.5%, and R 19.5%
The prevalence of IFG overall 14.1%
M 14.4%, and F 13.9%
1-Y, 2-Y, 3-Y, 4-Y, 5-Y, 6-N, 7-NA

[30]
Saudi Arabia
1996647
M: 383
F: 264
18–26Random samplingCross-sectional study91Current smokers: currently smoking at least 1 cigarette per dayCurrent smoking
overall 29%,
M 20%, F 9%
1-Y, 2-Y, 3-Y, 4-Y, 5-Y, 6-N, 7-NA

[31]
Saudi Arabia
1990–19932049
M: 1033
F: 1016
30–64Multistage stratified cluster sampling National Cross-sectional survey92DM: the random serum glucose according to the WHO criteria or self-reported/HC: mild (5.2–6.2 mmol/L) severe (>6.2 mmol/L)/HDL: <0.9 mmol/L/BMI: WHO criteriaOverweight: M 38%, F 34%
Obesity: M 23%, F 34%
DM: M 16.4%, F 20%
Smoking: M 21%, F 1%
Moderate HC: M & F = 21.5%
Severe HC: M & F = 9%
LDL: M 6.6%, F 10.3%
HDL: M 55%, F 47%
1-Y, 2-Y, 3-Y, 4-Y, 5-Y, 6-N, 7-NA

[32]
Saudi Arabia
1995–200017,232
M: 8215
F: 9008
30–70Two-stage stratified cluster sampling National epidemiological cross-sectional survey NROverweight and obesity defined according to the WHO Overweight:
Overall 36.9%,
M 42.4%, F 31.8%, U 36.9%, R 36.9%
Obesity:
Overall 35.6%,
M 26.4%, F 44%
U 39.7%, R 27%
1-Y, 2-Y, 3-Y, 4-Y, 5-Y, 6-N, 7-NA

[33]
Saudi Arabia
20011114
M: 442
F: 672
35–85Cluster sampling Cross-sectional studyNRHTN: BP ≥140 mmHg systolic and 90 mmHg diastolic or self-reported with medication or bothHTN:
Overall 30%
M 33%, F 29%, U 29%, R 32%
1-Y, 2-Y, 3-Y, 4-Y, 5-Y, 6-N, 7-NA

[34]
Saudi Arabia
19961333
M: 100%
≥19Random samplingCross-sectional study75Regular active: physically active for 30 or more minutes, 2 or more days a weekPhysically inactive 53%, irregularly active 27.5%, and physically active on a regular basis 19%1-Y, 2-Y, 3-Y, 4-Y, 5-N, 6-N, 7-NA

[35]
Saudi Arabia
1995–200017,230
M: 47.7%
F: 52.3%
30–70Two-stage stratified cluster sampling National epidemiological cross-sectional survey NRHTN: SBP ≥140 mmHg or DBP ≥90 mmHgHTN:
Overall 26.1%
M 28.6%, F 23.9%, U 27.9%, R 22.4%
1-Y, 2-Y, 3-Y, 4-Y, 5-Y, 6-N, 7-NA

[36]
Saudi Arabia
1995–200017,395
M: 8297
F: 9098
30–70Two-stage stratified cluster sampling National epidemiological cross-sectional survey NRPhysically active: 30 minutes or more of at least moderate-intensity activity for three or more times per week/physical inactivity: participants who did not meet the physically active criteriaPhysical inactivity:
Overall 96.1%
M 93.9%, F 98.1%
1-Y, 2-Y, 3-Y, 4-Y, 5-Y, 6-Y, 7-NA

[37]
Saudi Arabia
1995–200016.819
M: 47.6%
F: 52.4%
30–70Two-stage stratified cluster sampling National epidemiological cross-sectional survey 97HC: TC ≥5.2 mmol/L/TG: ≥1.69 mmol/LHC: overall 54%
M 54.9%, F 53.2%, U 53.4%, R 55.3%
HG: Overall 40.3%
M 47.6%, F 33.7%
1-Y, 2-Y, 3-Y, 4-Y, 5-Y, 6-Y, 7-NA

[38]
Saudi Arabia
1999-20001752
M & F = not clear
35.5Random samplingCross-sectional study70Current smokers: those who regularly or occasionally smoke on a daily, weekly, or monthly basis/nonsmokers: those who never smoked. Current smokers 52.3%
U 55.9%, R 44.1%
1-Y, 2-Y, 3-Y, 4-Y, 5-Y, 6-Y, 7-NA

[39]
Saudi Arabia
2004-2005195,874
M: 99,946
F: 95,905
≥30Nonrandom (all Saudis aged 30 and above who lived in the eastern region in SA were invited to participate in the screening programme)Cross-sectional survey99.1Overweight and obesity defined according to the WHOOverweight: overall 35.1%
M 40.3%, F 29.7%
Obesity: overall 43.8%
M 36.1%, F 51.8%
1-Y, 2-Y, 3-Y, 4-Y, 5-Y, 6-Y, 7-NA

[40]
Saudi Arabia
1993–1998F: 176430–70 yearsMultistage stratified cluster samplingCSSNRNR/Structured questionnaire (i) The consumption of black tea was 87.2%.
(ii) Females who daily consumed >6 cups of tea (>480 mL) were significantly more likely to have lower rates of dyslipidaemia including, high (TC) (OR = 0.63, 95% CI: 0.41–0.97), high TG (OR = 0.56, 95% CI: 0.35–0.86), high (LDL) (OR = 0.70, 95% CI: 0.45–1.07), and high (VLDL) (OR = 0.61, 95% CI: 0.39–0.93).
1-Y, 2-Y, 3-Y, 4-Y, 5-Y, 6-Y, 7-NA

[41]
Saudi Arabia
2008-2009312
M: 132
& F: 180
21.1 yearsRandom selectionCSSNRBMI according to the National Institute of Health. HTN according to the Fourth Report on the Diagnosis, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure/Self-reported questionnaire (11 items)(i) The % of total energy from carbohydrates and fats was (38% versus 39%) and (46.1% versus 46.8%) in both M and F.
(ii) Unhealthy food habits were high consumption of snacks (42.5%), a low consumption of vegetables (30%), a high consumption of fatty foods (36% in F; 44% in M), a high consumption of salty foods (36% in F; 43% in M), and a high consumption of sugar (41% in F; 38% in M).
(iii) A significant association between the high intakes of energy derived from fatty foods and BMI and HTN in both genders.
(iv) A significant association was found between the high consumption of salty foods and HTN.
(v) A negative association was found between the consumption of vegetables, grains, and beans and BMI and HTN in both genders.
1-Y, 2-Y, 3-Y, 4-Y, 5-Y, 6-N, 7-NA

[42]
Saudi Arabia
20092789
M: 1806
F: 981
30–70 yearsRandom selectionCSSNRNR/Questionnaire and 24 h recall (i) The most popular food was kabsa (80% in M and 65% in F), fresh fruits (63% in M and 45% in F), vegetables (62% in M and 47% in F) and dates (45%) in both genders and soft drinks (21% in M and 25% in F).1-Y, 2-Y, 3-Y, 4-Y, 5-N, 6-Y, 7-NA

[43]
The UAE
2008–201050138
M: 43%
F: 57%
18–75Nonrandom (all UAE nationals residing aged 18 to 75 who were living in Abu Dhabi city were enrolled in the CVD screening program)Cross-sectional national surveyMeasured data (98.7–99.9), self-reported data (86.1–99.8)Obesity and overweight: according to WHO/DM: past history and on medication or HbA1c ≥6.5% or random glucose 11.1 mmol/L/HTN: self-reported and on medication or SBP ≥140 mmHg or DBP ≥90 mmHg/dyslipidaemia: self-reported on medication or LDL 4.1 mmol/L or HDL 1.0 mmol/L/current smokers: 1 cigarette per day during the last 12 months or 1 water pipe per month during the last 3 monthsObesity: overall 35.4%
M 31.6%, and F 38.3%
Overweight: overall 31.9%
M 36.1%, and F 28.8%
Dyslipidaemia: overall 44.2%
M 57.7%, and F 33.9%
HTN: overall 23.1%
M 26%, and F 20.9%
Smoking: overall 11.6%
M 25.8%, and F 0.8%
DM: overall 17.6%
M 17.3%, and F 17.9%
1-Y, 2-Y, 3-Y, 4-Y, 5-Y, 6-Y, 7-NA

[44]
The UAE
19973150
M: 1516
F: 1634
18–75Stratified random samplingCross-sectional studyNRHTN: SBP >140 mmHg and/or DBP >90 mmHg and/or self-reported with medicationHTN:
overall 31.6%
M 47%, F 53%
1-Y, 2-Y, 3-Y, 4-N, 5-Y, 6-N, 7-NA

[45]
The UAE
1999-20005844
M: 2499
F: 3345
≥20Stratified multistage cluster sampling National epidemiological cross-sectional study89DM: fasting blood glucose ≥7.0 mmol/L or taking insulin or oral hypoglycemic agentsDM: overall 20%
M 21.5%, F 19.2%
IFG: overall 6.5%
M 4.5%, F 8%
1-Y, 2-Y, 3-Y, 4-Y, 5-Y, 6-N, 7-NA

[46]
The UAE
2000-2001535
F: 100%
>19Stratified random samplingCross-sectional survey95Overweight and obesity were defined according to WHO criteriaOverweight 27%
Obesity 35%
1-Y, 2-Y, 3-Y, 4-Y, 5-Y, 6-Y, 7-NA

[47]
The UAE
2002-20031104
M: 72%
F: 28%
18–69Multistage cluster random sample Large cross-sectional survey94.9Physical inactivity: the person did not meet the following criteria: 3 or more days of various activities during the last week of at least 20 minutes per day or 5 or more days of moderate-intensity activity or walking during the last week of at least 30 minutes per day Physical inactivity
Overall 39.5%
M 37.9%, F 56.7%
1-Y, 2-Y, 3-Y, 4-Y, 5-Y, 6-Y, 7-NA

[48]
The UAE
2010227
M: 74
F: 153
18–50
years
Convenience samplingCCSNRMetS according to ATP III/24 h recall(i) A high intake of total energy, carbohydrate, fat, and protein in M and F, (20971 versus 17180 kjoules/day), (627.3 versus 549.7 g/day), (207.5 versus 150.1 g/day), and (175.5 versus 151.5 g/day), respectively.
(ii) The mean intake of total sugar and fibre was high (224.4 versus 202 g/day) and (44.4 versus 33.3 g/day), respectively.
1-Y, 2-Y, 3-Y, 4-Y, 5-Y, 6-Y, 7-NA

[49]
The UAE
2001-2002F: 40018–25 yearsConvenience samplingCSSNRBMI according to WHO/self-administrated questionnaire(i) The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 19.4% and 6.7%, respectively.
(ii) Food habits include not having breakfast in 44.8%, fast food consumption once a day in 34.9%, and having only 1 or 2 meals/day in 52.3%.
(iii) A low consumption of cereals, vegetables and fruits by 54.4%, 51.5%, and 49.5%, respectively. A high intake of fat in 46.7%.
(iv) A significant association between obesity and low consumption of cereals and fruits.
1-Y, 2-Y, 3-Y, 4-Y, 5-N, 6-N, 7-NA

[50]
The UAE
19932212
M: 1122
F: 1090
≥20Random selectionCSSNRNA/pretested structured questionnaire(i) A low consumption of fruits, vegetables, and milk in the study population.
(ii) Elderly adults (≥50) were more likely to consume fruits, vegetables, fish, milk, and yoghurt than older adults.
(iii) Young adult females were more likely to consume fruits, vegetables, and fish than young adult males.
1-Y, 2-Y, 3-Y, 4-Y, 5-Y, 6-N, 7-NA

[51]
Kuwait
1995-19963003
M: 1105
F: 1898
≥20Convenience sampling (all Kuwaiti +20 in the survey area invited to participate)Cross-sectional studyNRDM according to the WHO diagnostic criteria for abnormal glucose toleranceDM:
overall 14.8%
M 14.7%, F 14.8%
1-Y, 2-Y, 3-Y, 4-Y, 5-N, 6-N, 7-NA

[52]
Kuwait
19963859
M: 1798
F: 2061
33.2A three-stage stratified cluster samplingCross-sectional national study96.5Current smokers: if they were smoking at the time of the survey and had smoked more than 100 cigarette in their lifetime, former smokers: if they had smoked more than 100 cigarette in their life but no longer smoking, and never smokers: when they had never smoked or smoked less than 100 cigarettes in their lifeThe prevalence of smoking:
Overall 17%
M 34.4%, F 1.9%
1-Y, 2-Y, 3-Y, 4-Y, 5-Y, 6-Y, 7-NA

[53]
Kuwait
1998–200932,811
M: 15,110
F: 17,701
20–69Convenience sampling (Kuwaitis in health examination for Gov. and Hajj health check-ups and PHCCs)National cross-sectional surveyNRHC: moderate (5.2–6.22 TC mmol/L) severe (>6.23 TC mmol/L)HC prevalence increased from 1998 to 1999 (M 35%; F 31%) until 2006-2007 (M 56%; F 53.6%) and then declined in 2008-2009 (M 33.7%; F 30.6%)1-Y, 2-Y, 3-Y, 4-Y, 5-N, 6-Y, 7-NA

[54]
Kuwait
20062280
M: 918
F: 1362
20–65Systematic random samplingNational cross-sectional survey77.6Overweight and obesity were defined according to the WHO criteriaCombined overweight and obesity: 80.4%
Obesity:
M 39.2%, F 53%
1-Y, 2-Y, 3-Y, 4-Y, 5-Y, 6-N,7-NA

[55]
Kuwait
1998–200938,611
M: 17,491
F: 21,120
20–69convenience sampling (Kuwaitis in health examination for Gov. and Hajj health check-ups and PHCCs)National cross-sectional surveyNROverweight and obesity defined according to the WHO criteriaObesity increased from 1998 to 1999 (M 22.8%; F 28.4%) until 2008-2009 (M 34.1%; F 43%)
Overweight increased from 1998 to 1999 (M 36.5%; F 33.4%) until 2008-2009 (M 43.3%; F 34.3%)
1-Y, 2-Y, 3-Y, 4-Y, 5-N, 6-Y, 7-NA

[56]
Kuwait
2002–20096356
M: 2745
F: 3611
20–69Convenience sampling (Kuwaitis in health examination for Gov. and Hajj health check-ups and PHCCs)National cross-sectional surveyNRDiabetes defined according to the WHO criteriaIFG decreased from 2002 to 2009 by (M: 7.4%, F: 6.8%) and DM decreased in the same period by (M 9.8%, F 8.9%)
The prevalence in 2008-2009:
IFG (M 6%, F 5.3%)
DM (M 9.3%, F 6%)
Physical activity (M 42.1%, F 19.2%)
1-Y, 2-Y, 3-Y, 4-Y, 5-N, 6-Y, 7-NA

[57]
Kuwait
2006761
M: 261
F: 500
M: 21 years
F: 20.8 years
Random sampling Cross-sectional
study
84.5Water-pipe smokers: a person who smoked sheesha and had smoked sheesha for at least one month, people who had not smoked sheesha were classified as sheesha nonsmokersWater-pipe smoking:
M 24.6%, F 5.5%
Cigarette smoking:
M 38.8%, F 7.9%
1-Y, 2-Y, 3-Y, 4-Y, 5-N, 6-N, 7-NA

[58]
Qatar
20031208
M: 508
F: 700
25–65A multistage stratified cluster sampling Cross-sectional study80.5BP according to the WHO criteriaHTN: 32.1%
M 32.6%, F 31.7%
1-Y, 2-Y, 3-Y, 4-Y, 5-Y, 6-N, 7-NA

[59]
Qatar
2007-20081117
M: 571
F: 546
>20A multistage stratified cluster sampling Cross-sectional study77.9DM was defined according to the WHO expert groupDM: 16.7%
M 15.2%, F 18.1%
1-Y, 2-Y, 3-Y, 4-Y, 5-Y, 6-Y, 7-NA

[60]
Qatar
1992603
F: 100%
18–67Convenient samplingCross-sectional surveyNRObesity and overweight according to the WHO definition/self-reported of past history of DM and HTNHTN: 12.3%, DM: 12.9%
Smoking: 3.2%, overweight: 30%, obesity: 33.6%, regular exercise: 16%
1-Y, 2-partly, 3-not entirely appropriate, 4-Y, 5-N, 6-N, 7-NA

[61]
Oman
20007011
M: 50%
F: 50%
≥20A multistage stratified probability-sampling Cross-sectional national survey83–91.5Current smokers: people who were smoking at the time of the survey and had smoked more than 100 cigarette in their life/former smokers: if they had smoked more than 100 cigarette in their life but no longer smoking/never smokers: if they had never smoked or had smoked less than 100 cigarette in their lifeCurrent smoking: 7%
M 13.4%, F 0.5%
Former smokers: 2.3%
Never smokers: 90.7%
1-Y, 2-Y, 3-Y, 4-Y, 5-Y, 6-N, 7-NA

[62]
Oman
20007179
M: 50%
F: 50%
≥20A multistage stratified probability-sampling design Cross-sectional national survey96The WHO criteria for glucose intolerance, HC, and HTNDM: overall 11.6%
M 11.8%, F 11.3%, U 17.7%, R 10.5%
HTN: overall 21.5%
M 32.5%, F 22.7%, U 26.4%, R 20.2%
HC: overall 50.6%
M 50.8%, F 50.4%, U 50%, R 50.7%
1-Y, 2-Y, 3-Y, 4-Y, 5-Y, 6-Y, 7-NA

[63]
Oman
1991
and
5086
M: 2128
F: 2958
≥20Convenient samplingCross-sectional surveys92Overweight and obesity were defined according to the WHO criteriaOverweight: in 1991 (M 28.8%, F 29.5%) in 2000 (M 32.1%, F 27.3%)
Obesity: in 1991 (M 10.5%, F
25.1%) in 2000 (M 16.7%, 23.8%)
1-Y, 2-Y, 3-Y, 4-Y, 5-N, 6-N, 7-NA
20006400
M: 3069
F: 3331
A multistage stratified probability-sampling design 911-Y, 2-Y, 3-Y, 4-Y, 5-Y, 6-N, 7-NA

[64]
Oman
20011421
M: 49%
F: 51%
≥20A probabilistic random samplingCommunity based cross-sectional study75.5DM: FPG ≥5.6 mmol/L or 2hG ≥11.1 mmol/L or on medication/HTN: SBP ≥130 mmHg and/or DBP ≥85 mmHg or on medication/TC: ≥5.2 mmol/L/TG: ≥1.69 mmol/L/HDL: <1.03 mmol/L or on medication for dyslipidaemia/current smokers: people who smoking at the time of the survey/physical activity at leisure time and/or at work HTN (M 24.7%, F 13.8%)
DM (M 12.9%, F 11.9%)
HC (M 34.5%, F 34.5%)
TG (M 24.4%, F 13%)
HDL (M 75.9%, F 71.6%)
Inactivity (M 24.3%, F 69.3%)
Smoking (M 9.6%, F 0)
1-Y, 2-Y, 3-Y, 4-Y, 5-Y, 6-Y, 7-NA

[65]
Oman
200840,179
M: 52%
F: 48%
≥18A multistage stratified cluster sampling design Community-based national cross-sectional survey93.5The WHO criteria for diagnosis HTN, HC, BMI, and DM were usedOverweight: overall 29.5%
M 31.2%, F 28%
Obesity: overall 24.1%
M 22%, F 26.1%
HTN: overall 40.3%
M 50.7%, F 31%
DM: overall 12.3%
M 12.4%, F 12.1%
HC: overall 33.6%
M 33.1%, F 33.9%
HDL: overall 35.2%
M 26.3%, F 42.7%
LDL: overall 32%
M 33%, F 31.2%
TG: overall 18%
M 21.6%, F 14.9%
1-Y, 2-Y, 3-Y, 4-Y, 5-Y, 6-Y, 7-NA

[66]
Bahrain
1995-19962013
M: 1168
F: 845
40–69Stratified sampling design Cross-sectional national survey70Overweight and obesity: WHO criteria.
Physical activity was assessed by walking and cycling information: walkkm = 5 × walkwk (walking/day in average week) + walkkm (walking in weekend).
Cyclekm = 5 × cyclewk (cycling/day in average week) + cyclewe (cycling in weekend)
Age-adjusted prevalence of overweight:
M 39.9%, F 32.7%
Age-adjusted prevalence of obesity:
M 25.3%, F 33.2%
Physical activity:
21% of men and 6% of women aged 50–59 walked 1–3 km per day and 68% of men and 93% of women aged 50–59 walked less than 1 km per day
1-Y, 2-Y, 3-Y, 4-Y, 5-Y, 6-N, 7-NA

[67]
Bahrain
2002514
M: 298
F: 216
30–79Probability cluster sampling design Cross-sectional community-based surveyNRDM was defined by self-reported past history of diabetesDM: 9%
M 41.3%, F 58.7%
1-Y, 2-Y, 3-not entirely appropriate, 4-Y, 5-N, 6-Y, 7-NA

[68]
Bahrain
2001514
M: 298
F: 216
30–79Probability cluster sampling design Cross-sectional community-based surveyNROverweight and obesity were defined according to the WHO criteriaOverweight:
Overall 31%
M 35.2%, F 31%
Obesity:
Overall 48.7%
M 21.2%, F 48.7%
1-Y, 2-Y, 3-Y, 4-Y, 5-Y, 6-N, 7-NA

[69]
Bahrain
1995-19962090
M: 1192
F: 834
40–69Stratified sampling design Cross-sectional national survey62HTN: SBP ≥160 mmHg, DBP ≥95 mmHg or on antihypertensive HTN:
M: 21% in 40–49 years, 29% in 50–59 years
F: 33% in 50–59 years, 43% in 60–69 years
1-Y, 2-Y, 3-Y, 4-Y, 5-Y, 6-N, 7-NA

[70]
Bahrain
1995-19962029
M & F = not clear
40–69Stratified sampling design Cross-sectional national epidemiological59–70DM was defined according to WHO criteria DM:
M: 23% in 40–49 years, 29% in 50–59 years
F: 36% in age groups 50–59 and 37% 60–69 years
1-Y, 2-Y, 3-Y, 4-Y, 5-Y, 6-N, 7-NA

[71]
Bahrain
2000516
M: 299
F: 217
30–79Random cluster-sampling design Cross-sectional studyNRCurrent smokers: a person smoking at least 1 cigarette per day regularly/ex-smokers: person who gave up smoking at least 6 months previously/nonsmoker: person who had never smoked regularlyOverall cigarette smoking:
(M 27.1%, F 3.2%)
Overall sheesha smoking:
(M 5%, F 17.5%)
Overall total smoking:
M 32.1%, F 20.7%
1-Y, 2-Y, 3-Y, 4-Y, 5-Y, 6-N, 7-NA

[72]
Bahrain
1996498
M: 174
F: 324
≥20Random selection from health care centres attendances Cross-sectional study86.9DM was defined according to WHO criteria OR if the person had a previous history of DMThe prevalence of known diabetes subjects:
M: 18.4%/F: 16.7%
The prevalence of unknown diabetes:
M: 8%/F: 8.3%
The overall prevalence of diabetes: 25.5%
M: 26.4%/F: 25%
1-Y, 2-Y, 3-Y, 4-Y, 5-N, 6-Y, 7-NA

M, male; F, female; U, urban; R, rural; DM, diabetes; IFG, impaired fasting glucose; HC, hypercholesterolemia; TG, triglyceride; TC, total cholesterol; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; HTN, hypertension; SBP, systolic blood pressure; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; NR, not reported; ACS, acute coronary syndrome; BMI, body mass index; Y, yes; N, no; and NA, not applicable.
(*) the quality assessment checklist assessed according to the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination guidelines (CRD) for nonrandomized studies: 1- Was the aim of the study stated clearly? 2- Was the methodology stated? And was it appropriate? 3- Were appropriate methods used for data collection and analysis? 4- Was the data analysis sufficiently rigorous? 5- Were preventive steps taken to minimize bias? 6- Were limitations of the study discussed? 7- In systematic review, was search strategy adequate and appropriate?

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