Background. With the global trend of increasing life expectancy, the health-related quality of life of older people haspersonalised become an area of significant interest. It is crucial to comprehend the advancements and identify the ongoing challenges in this domain for better health management and policy formation. Objectives. This scoping review aimed to comprehensively investigate the existing challenges and recent advancements associated with the quality of health among older people. Methods. We utilized Arksey and O’Malley’s scoping review framework for this study. A systematic literature search was performed across multiple databases, namely, PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar, targeting publications from 2018 to 2023. Selected studies were then rigorously examined based on predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria, followed by an in-depth thematic analysis. Results. Of the initial 406 identified studies, 72 were included in the final review. The analysis underscored enduring challenges in physical and medical issues, psychological difficulties, socioeconomic obstacles, and policy-related challenges. Meanwhile, significant advancements were noted in several areas, including technology, medicine, social and societal facets, and policy. Conclusions. Despite noteworthy improvements in the health-related quality of life of older individuals, the continued presence of substantial challenges emphasizes the need for more targeted initiatives. These results suggest an immediate requirement for revising policies and implementing interventions that specifically address identified challenges, with a particular emphasis on ensuring equitable health care access, effectively managing chronic conditions, and enhancing the training of geriatric health care professionals. This comprehensive review serves as a roadmap for guiding future research and shaping policy directions in the health care of older people.

1. Introduction

Understanding the well-being of older people is a crucial aspect of public health that holds considerable importance for health care practitioners, researchers, and policymakers [1]. The World Health Organization defines health broadly as a state encompassing not only the absence of disease or frailty but also complete physical, mental, and social well-being [2]. The concept of health-related quality of life for older people encompasses various dimensions, including physical health, mental state, levels of independence, social interactions, personal beliefs, and environmental context [3].

Over time, the understanding of health-related quality of life for older people has undergone significant development [4]. Previously, it was primarily viewed through a biomedical lens, focusing on the treatment and management of illnesses, with indicators such as survival rates, disease absence, and fundamental functional abilities serving as benchmarks [5]. However, there has been a notable shift toward a holistic perspective in recent years [6]. This approach recognizes the intricate interplay between the physical, psychological, and social well-being of older individuals, acknowledging that a disease-free state does not always correlate with good health or an enhanced quality of life [7].

The implications of health-related quality of life for older people extend to both individual and societal levels [8]. For older people, an improved health-related quality of life often translates to increased independence, self-sufficiency in daily activities, and enhanced well-being [9]. At the societal level, it reflects the community’s respect and care for its aging population and carries economic implications by potentially reducing health care costs for families and public resources [10]. Consequently, enhancing health-related quality of life among older persons is not just personally significant; it also holds societal and economic relevance [11].

The global demographic shift toward an aging population emphasizes the importance of studying developments and challenges in the health-related quality of life for older people [12]. This trend underscores the need to extend the duration of healthy living, known as health span, by leveraging progress in technology, medical science, social services, and policies [13]. However, it is essential to recognize and address barriers to achieving good health-related quality of life in the older population, including age-related illnesses, access to care, socioeconomic disparities, mental health issues, and social isolation [14]. Acknowledging these challenges enables the development of strategies to improve the health-related quality of life for the aging demographic [15]. Consequently, this review aimed to explore both challenges and advancements in the health-related quality of life for older people.

2. Method

2.1. Study Design

We employed the five-step Arksey O’Malley scoping review framework [16] to guide this scoping review on the advancements and challenges in the health-related quality of life for older people. The five-step process includes (i) identifying the research question; (ii) identifying relevant studies; (iii) study selection; (iv) charting the data; and (v) collating, summarizing, and reporting the results.

2.2. Identifying the Research Question

Our study focused on the pivotal research question: “What are the advancements and challenges in health-related quality of life for older people?” This inquiry was formulated after careful deliberations among the research team, aiming to cast a broad net over the extensive research available on the chosen subject. Our goal was to critically explore the progress and difficulties encountered in the health-related quality of life for older people. The formulation of this research question marked a significant step in our review process, setting the tone for our systematic investigation and enabling us to uncover essential themes and reveal any existing research gaps in the field of health-related quality of life for older people.

2.3. Identifying Relevant Studies

To ensure a comprehensive and precise search for applicable literature, we meticulously designed our search strategy, incorporating Boolean operators (AND/OR/NOT) in conjunction with keywords, Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms, and database parameters. For instance, we utilized Boolean operators such as (“elderly” OR “older adults” OR “older people” OR “older person”) AND (“health quality” OR “quality of life” OR “advancements” OR “challenges”) to ensure a nuanced and targeted approach in capturing the most relevant literature related to the research question. The search encompassed three primary academic databases: PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar, chosen for their extensive coverage of health and medical literature. Additionally, to enhance clarity and specify relationships between terms, we defined the search space by indicating whether the terms were applied to the title and abstract. This refined approach aids in better understanding the context in which the keywords were sought within the literature. Furthermore, our search was restricted to articles published in English, contributing to the feasibility and clarity of the review process. The searches were conducted within a specified timeframe, and the dates of these searches were recorded to provide transparency regarding the temporal scope of our investigation. This detailed and refined search strategy, incorporating Boolean operators, elevates the rigor and transparency of our scoping review process.

2.4. Study Selection

The study selection process was designed to ensure the inclusion of the most relevant research articles focused on challenges and advancements in the quality of health among older individuals. Our inclusion criteria specified that the articles should be original research pieces, published in English from 2018 to 2023, and fully accessible in text. This timeframe was chosen to ensure the incorporation of the most recent challenges and advancements in the health-related quality of life of older individuals. By focusing on the last 5 years of research, this review aimed to capture the most up-to-date findings and trends in the field, providing a comprehensive overview of the current state of knowledge. Second, limiting this timeline helps address the dynamic nature of research, particularly in rapidly evolving fields such as health care. Including older articles might result in outdated information that does not accurately reflect the current landscape of health-related quality of life among older individuals. However, to maintain our review’s focus and quality, we set exclusion criteria that omitted non-English articles, conference abstracts, editorials, book chapters, and commentaries. The process was initiated by removing duplicate articles to streamline the pool of literature. Three reviewers independently screened titles and abstracts, employing our predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria. This approach was instrumental in ensuring the reliability and comprehensiveness of our study selection process. When there was a discrepancy between the three reviewers, we resorted to constructive discussion to resolve the differences. When a consensus was difficult to reach, the other reviewers were brought into the discussion to make a final decision. This systematic approach to study selection reinforced the integrity and rigor of our scoping review.

2.5. Charting the Data

Data extraction from the selected studies was carried out using a preformatted data collection form. This form was carefully designed to capture the essential details from each study, such as author(s), year of publication, study location, study design, sample, study objectives, and significant findings (Tables 1 and 2). The form also included specific fields to record critical findings related to challenges and advancements in the health-related quality of life for older people and any notable implications for future research. Using this standardized form ensured consistency and thoroughness in the data extraction process, facilitating an efficient, organized, and reliable synthesis and interpretation of the study findings in the subsequent stages of our scoping review.

2.6. Collating, Summarizing, and Reporting the Results

The extracted data were assembled and methodically synthesized in the critical phase of collating, summarizing, and reporting the results. We aimed to discern recurring themes and patterns across the selected studies, providing valuable insights into the state of the field concerning challenges and advancements in the health-related quality of life for older people. This synthesis was then meticulously transformed into a narrative summary, serving as a clear, concise, and comprehensive account of the current literature landscape on our chosen topic. This summary provides a snapshot of the existing knowledge and highlights gaps where future research could be most valuable. To report our findings, we strictly adhered to the PRISMA extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR) guidelines (Figure 1). This ensured that our scoping review met the best practice standards regarding transparency, completeness, and replicability.

3. Results

3.1. Challenges in Health-Related Quality of Life for Older People
3.1.1. Physical and Medical Challenges

The aging process brings various physical and medical challenges that can significantly impact the health-related quality of life for older individuals. One of the primary obstacles is the increased susceptibility to various diseases and conditions that typically accompany advancing age.

(1) Age-Related Diseases and Conditions. Older individuals are notably more susceptible to developing chronic or life-threatening diseases. This vulnerability encompasses cardiovascular diseases, such as heart disease, hypertension, and strokes [18]. Diabetes, a common ailment among older individuals, can lead to complications like kidney disease and vision loss if not managed appropriately [20]. While not exclusively age-related, the statistical likelihood of cancer increases with age, escalating the risk for several types of cancer [21]. Degenerative diseases like arthritis and osteoporosis pose significant challenges, affecting mobility, causing chronic pain, and often resulting in decreased independence and life quality [22]. Dementia and other neurodegenerative conditions profoundly impact cognitive abilities and daily functioning [24]. Many older persons simultaneously grapple with multiple chronic conditions, leading to polypharmacy—a complex management of multiple conditions that complicates medical treatment, requiring vigilant monitoring, extensive medication regimes, and enhanced coordination of health care services [25].

(2) Accessibility to Treatments. Beyond the intrinsic biological challenges of aging, external factors present significant impediments to health-related quality of life for older people [26]. Foremost among these is the challenge of accessing appropriate and timely health care. Many older individuals find navigating the health care system challenging for various reasons. Logistic barriers, such as a lack of readily available transportation or physical immobility due to arthritis or frailty, significantly hinder access to necessary health services [27]. Compounding this issue is the need for health care providers specializing in senior care. Despite a growing need for professionals with expertise in handling the unique health concerns of older patients, there is a noticeable scarcity of such specialized professionals in many areas, leaving many older individuals underserved [28]. These combined barriers make it increasingly difficult for older people to receive the treatments they require, inevitably impacting the overall quality of their health.

3.1.2. Psychological Challenges

Alongside the physical and medical trials of aging, there are significant psychological challenges that many older people grapple with. Older people face complex problems that can seriously affect their health and quality of life.

(1) Mental Health Issues. A concerning issue, exacerbated by the COVID-19 situation, is the heightened vulnerability of older people to mental health issues, with conditions like depression and anxiety disorders often mistakenly regarded as “normal” aspects of aging [29]. In reality, these conditions are prevalent in this demographic. Neurodegenerative disorders like dementia, including Alzheimer’s disease, further contribute to the spectrum of mental health challenges in older individuals, causing memory loss, confusion, and significant personality changes [30]. Unfortunately, these conditions frequently go undiagnosed or untreated in older persons, presenting a complex mental health landscape. Several factors contribute to this problem. First, a lack of awareness about mental health in older persons may lead individuals and caregivers to misinterpret signs as typical aging processes [31]. Second, there is a persistent stigma surrounding mental health problems, particularly among older people, discouraging them from seeking help [32]. This combined with the general lack of awareness creates a troubling gap in detecting and addressing mental health issues in older people, presenting a substantial challenge to their overall health-related quality of life.

(2) Social Isolation and Loneliness. As individuals age, they often encounter diverse life events and transitions that may result in social isolation and sensations of solitude, presenting considerable psychological hurdles [33]. The loss of companions or family members, combined with declining physical health that restricts mobility, can isolate older individuals from their social circles [23]. Whether residing alone by choice or due to circumstances, this situation can intensify feelings of isolation. These cumulative experiences may ultimately lead to profound loneliness [34]. Research has indicated that loneliness impacts mental well-being, contributing to conditions like depression and anxiety, while also carrying significant consequences for physical health [35]. It has been associated with an elevated risk of conditions such as heart disease and can adversely affect the immune system, potentially resulting in various health issues [36]. Consequently, addressing social isolation and loneliness emerges as crucial for enhancing the quality of health in older persons.

3.1.3. Socioeconomic Challenges

Many socioeconomic factors pose considerable challenges to health-related quality of life for older people, creating disparities and obstacles in accessing and affording necessary health care.

(1) Affordability of Care. The soaring expenses in healthcare pose a major worry for numerous older people, particularly concerning the substantial costs associated with long-term care. This becomes a financial barrier for many older people who require such care due to chronic conditions or functional limitations [37]. Long-term care encompasses crucial services like home care, assisted living facilities, and nursing homes, all vital components of comprehensive care for older people [38]. Even individuals with health insurance may not find complete protection from the financial burdens of health care. Copayments, deductibles, and out-of-pocket expenses for medications, equipment, or services not covered by insurance can rapidly accumulate. This accumulation renders necessary treatments and care financially unattainable for many older persons [39]. The resulting financial strain may lead to delays in seeking care, nonadherence to prescribed treatments, or financial hardships, all of which significantly impact the health quality and overall well-being of older people [40].

(2) Health Disparities among Older Persons. Various socioeconomic factors wield considerable influence over health outcomes in older persons, resulting in pronounced disparities in health-related quality of life for older people. An individual’s socioeconomic situation, encompassing income, education, and profession, profoundly shapes their health outcomes [41]. Those at lower socioeconomic levels often grapple with restricted access to adequate treatment, poor health literacy, and heightened exposure to health risks, leading to poorer overall health outcomes [42].

Race and ethnicity introduce additional complexities to health status variations among older persons. Factors such as cultural barriers, linguistic challenges, and systemic biases in health care contribute to disparities, resulting in worse health outcomes and diminished health care access for older persons from racial and ethnic minority groups [43]. Gender serves as another determinant, with older women, often outliving men, being more prone to living with chronic conditions and experiencing higher rates of disability [44]. This heightened health care need can be burdensome, especially for those with lower incomes. These socioeconomic challenges present significant hurdles to achieving optimal health-related quality of life in older persons, emphasizing the imperative for more equitable and accessible health care policies and practices. Ensuring that all seniors, regardless of income, race, or gender, have access to medical care that facilitates aging in place with respect and dignity requires a dedicated effort to address and rectify these disparities in the healthcare landscape [45].

3.1.4. Policy Challenges

Older people’s health-related quality of life is profoundly influenced by the structure and effectiveness of public policies, and often, significant hurdles lie within these realms. From gaps in the design of supportive policies to difficulties in implementation, policy challenges remain vital to address to improve health-related quality of life for older people.

(1) Lack of Supportive Policies. Over the years, considerable progress has been made in shaping policies to enhance care for older people. Nevertheless, there exists a noticeable gap in the formulation of comprehensive and inclusive policies that adequately address the diverse needs of the older population. Current policies must take a holistic approach to address a myriad of needs, spanning health care services, long-term care, financial security, and social support for older persons [46]. Health care services, in particular, necessitate a more integrated model encompassing preventative care, rehabilitation, mental health services, and social care alongside traditional medical care [47]. Given the economic challenges faced by many older individuals, policies ensuring financial security, such as affordable health care, pensions, and subsidies, assume critical importance [48]. Equally vital are policies addressing social needs, including housing, transportation, and community programs to combat isolation—areas often lacking sufficient policy support [49]. These policy gaps can leave numerous older people without the necessary assistance, intensifying their challenges and contributing to compromised health outcomes.

(2) Implementation Hurdles. Transforming progressive and well-designed policies into effective practice can prove challenging, hindered by several factors. Chief among these challenges is often a lack of adequate funding, acting as a primary barrier [50]. The provision of services and support outlined in policies becomes feasible with the necessary financial resources [51]. Furthermore, infrastructural issues, encompassing the need for additional facilities, personnel, or technological resources, can significantly impede service delivery [52]. Resistance from various sectors poses another significant hurdle. This resistance may stem from a lack of understanding of the needs of older people, conflicting priorities, or reluctance to deviate from established practices [53]. Consequently, these challenges create a considerable gap between policy and practice in health care for older persons, leaving many older persons without the essential support despite seemingly robust policies [54]. Addressing these policy challenges is paramount for enhancing the health-related quality of life for older persons, necessitating commitment, resources, and a comprehensive understanding of the unique needs of this demographic.

3.2. Advancements in Health-Related Quality of Life for Older People
3.2.1. Technological Advancements

Technological innovations have significantly transformed health care delivery, offering the immense potential to overcome many challenges (Table 2) in health-related quality of life for older people.

(1) Role of Telemedicine. Telemedicine has revolutionized health care delivery, offering significant advantages for older people grappling with mobility or accessibility challenges. Through digital platforms, health care providers can conduct remote consultations, diagnoses, and treatments, sparing older people from the burdensome routine of hospital visits [55]. This technological intervention provides immediate medical care, ensures continuous health monitoring, and promotes consistent interactions with health care professionals [56]. Beyond convenience, telemedicine empowers older individuals to actively engage in their health management from the comfort of home, enhancing their overall health care experience [57]. This transformative approach addresses the unique needs of older people and signifies a pivotal shift toward more accessible and patient-centric health care practices [58].

(2) Wearable Health Technology. Wearable health technology has transformed the landscape of personal health monitoring, encompassing a spectrum from health-monitoring smartwatches to heart rate sensors and fall detection systems [59]. The real-time data gleaned from these wearables provide invaluable insights into diverse health parameters [60]. This innovation holds particular significance for older individuals, ushering in a substantial shift. Immediate alerts from these devices enable prompt responses to potential health irregularities, while continuous tracking supports more effective management of chronic conditions [61]. Furthermore, these wearables grant older people increased independence, empowering them to monitor their health and manage self-care routines autonomously [62]. Consequently, wearable health technology enhances the standard of care and enriches the lives of older people. Amid rapid technological progress, it is crucial to harness these innovations to cultivate a health care environment conducive to older people, thereby enhancing their health and overall life experiences.

3.2.2. Medical Advancements

Medical advancements play a pivotal role in overcoming the challenges in health-related quality of life for older people, offering innovative treatment methods, and reinforcing the importance of preventive care.

(1) New Treatment Methods. A striking advancement in modern medicine lies in the evolution of more sophisticated, less invasive, and highly efficient treatment modalities. One groundbreaking innovation is precision medicine, a revolutionary approach tailoring treatment plans to individual genetic profiles, ushering in a new era of targeted and personalized care [63]. The emergence of minimally invasive surgeries has further elevated patient experiences, offering reduced recovery times, decreased discomfort, and minimized complication risks compared to traditional invasive procedures [64]. These advancements are particularly advantageous for older people, as they tend to encounter greater challenges in recovering from invasive treatments due to age-related factors and potential existing health conditions.

Additionally, the advent of targeted therapies represents another milestone in medical progress. This approach focuses on treating specific affected areas or systems in the body while minimizing harm to healthy ones [65]. The targeted nature of these therapies reduces the side effects often associated with conventional treatments, a significant benefit for older patients who are more vulnerable to side effects due to age and frequently coexisting health issues [66]. This collective progress in medical methodologies exemplifies a commitment to improving treatment outcomes and enhancing the overall well-being of patients, especially the older population.

(2) Preventative Care Strategies. In today’s health care landscape, the emphasis on preventive care is as paramount as curative treatments. This approach encompasses diverse strategies, including routine screenings for the early detection of potential diseases, adherence to regular vaccination schedules to guard against infectious diseases, and lifestyle modifications to cultivate healthier habits [67]. Among these pillars, regular health screenings hold particular importance, offering a critical avenue for early detection and timely intervention, especially for older individuals. Early diagnosis often leads to more manageable treatments and enhanced health outcomes [68]. Vaccinations play a crucial role in shielding against various infections, which can be particularly severe in older people due to their typically weaker immune systems [69]. Moreover, fostering healthy lifestyle habits, such as maintaining a balanced diet, engaging in regular physical exercise, prioritizing mental well-being, and eliminating harmful practices like smoking, significantly contributes to disease prevention [70]. These comprehensive strategies are essential in the management of health-related quality of life for older people, effectively reducing disease prevalence, improving overall health status, and ultimately extending life expectancy.

3.2.3. Social and Societal Advancements

Social and societal advancements significantly impact the quality of health for older people, with improved living conditions and the critical role of social support and community engagement leading the charge.

(1) Improvement in Living Conditions. The well-being of older people is profoundly shaped by their living environments, and recent years have witnessed notable strides in this regard. The emergence of elder-friendly housing options, equipped with accessibility aids, emergency response systems, and specialized facilities catering to seniors’ needs, reflects a positive shift [5]. Simultaneously, the expansion of in-home care services provides older people with medical support, assistance in daily activities, and companionship, fostering independence while ensuring necessary care [71]. Assisted living communities present a pragmatic alternative, offering a nuanced balance between autonomy and comprehensive care [1]. These settings provide a secure and interactive atmosphere for older people to engage with peers while receiving expert support for their health and daily needs [19].

However, despite these advancements improving living conditions for older persons, challenges persist. Affordability and accessibility issues may impede many older people from benefiting from these enhanced environments [72]. Additionally, the emotional strain associated with leaving one’s home to transition to assisted living facilities poses a substantial challenge [73]. Addressing these challenges is imperative to ensure that advancements in living conditions contribute positively to the overall quality of health for older people. Efforts must focus on making improved living options more accessible and addressing the emotional aspects of these transitions to truly enhance the well-being of older people [74].

(2) Role of Social Support and Community. The importance of social support and community involvement in enhancing the well-being of older people cannot be overstated. Strong social networks significantly contribute to the mental, emotional, and physical well-being of older individuals [17]. Participation in community activities, like joining local clubs, engaging in volunteer programs, or partaking in group exercises, fosters a sense of belonging, enhances self-esteem, and overall contributes to the well-being of older people [75]. Furthermore, the rise of technology has led to virtual communities, offering older individuals’ opportunities to connect, participate in online events, and access health resources [76]. These digital platforms play a crucial role in addressing feelings of isolation among older people, providing valuable avenues for social engagement and connection in the digital realm.

3.2.4. Policy Advancements

Policy advancements are crucial in improving health-related quality of life for older people by instituting protective measures, promoting access to healthcare, and encouraging active aging.

(1) Government Policies Favoring Health Care for Older People. The recognition of quality health care’s significance for older individuals is growing on a policy level, with governments worldwide initiating efforts to enhance the health-related quality of life for their older populations [77]. These initiatives include policies that subsidize health care for older persons, stimulating the demand for targeted and effective medical services tailored to their needs [78]. Increased government funding for research on age-related health issues has led to breakthroughs in understanding and treating ailments prevalent among older people [79]. Policies promoting active aging, emphasizing regular physical activity, mental engagement, and social involvement, are gaining momentum to maintain health and well-being in old age [80]. These comprehensive initiatives are shaping a policy landscape advocating for holistic health care for older people. Nevertheless, challenges exist, such as unequal access due to socioeconomic disparities or regional differences [81]. Additionally, the implementation and effectiveness of these policies can vary, necessitating ongoing assessment and improvements for a more equitable and impactful approach [82].

(2) Global Initiatives and Programs. In recent years, there has been a substantial surge in global initiatives and programs dedicated to addressing the challenges posed by an aging population. Governments, international organizations, and nonprofit entities are acknowledging the imperative to cater to the needs and rights of older persons [83]. The aging and health program is a pivotal component, focusing on the formulation of age-friendly policies and services. This encompasses the enhancement of health care systems, the promotion of active aging, and the resolution of elder abuse and neglect issues [84].

Moreover, understanding the importance of fostering the well-being of older people is integral to ensuring healthy lives and overall prosperity. This commitment has led to the implementation of various global programs for older persons, aiming to improve healthcare access, enhance social inclusion, and provide financial security [85]. Nongovernmental organizations have played a crucial role in these endeavors by advocating for the rights of older persons and implementing programs to address their diverse needs. Their initiatives span from ensuring health care and income security to promoting intergenerational solidarity and combating age discrimination [44]. Ultimately, these global initiatives and programs reflect a collective dedication to constructing inclusive societies where older people can lead fulfilling lives. By prioritizing their well-being, ensuring access to essential services, and actively empowering them to participate in society, these initiatives honor the valuable contributions of older individuals while also striving to create a more age-friendly world.

4. Discussion

This scoping review revealed that the landscape of health care for older individuals is undergoing a transformative shift propelled by technological, medical, social, and policy advancements. As we delve into the intricate web of challenges that older individuals face in maintaining health-related quality of life, a nuanced understanding of the interconnectedness among these challenges and the advancements designed to address them becomes imperative.

This research explored how technological innovations have emerged as powerful allies in overcoming challenges related to health care accessibility and monitoring for older individuals. Telemedicine, a revolutionary advancement, stands out as a solution to the physical and logistical challenges associated with aging [86]. By facilitating remote consultations, diagnoses, and treatments, telemedicine offers a lifeline for those facing mobility or transportation obstacles [87]. Its role in immediate medical care, continuous health monitoring, and promoting consistent interactions with health care professionals addresses the unique needs of older individuals [88]. The synergy with wearable health technology amplifies the impact, providing real-time data and empowering older individuals to actively engage in their health management [89]. Wearable devices, ranging from smartwatches to sensors, offer insights into diverse health parameters, enabling prompt responses to potential health irregularities and supporting effective management of chronic conditions [90]. The seamless integration of telemedicine and wearable health technology enhances the standard of care and enriches the lives of older people by fostering independence and autonomy [91].

This review found that medical advancements play a pivotal role in mitigating challenges related to the aging process and the increased susceptibility to diseases. Precision medicine, a groundbreaking approach tailoring treatment plans to individual genetic profiles, addresses the complexities of age-related conditions [92]. Its targeted and personalized care minimizes the risks and discomfort associated with traditional invasive procedures, particularly advantageous for older individuals [93]. Similarly, the emergence of minimally invasive surgeries reduces recovery times and complication risks, aligning with the age-related challenges in recovering from invasive treatments [94]. The interplay extends to preventative care strategies, emphasizing routine screenings for early disease detection and adherence to vaccination schedules [95]. These strategies, integral components of modern health care, contribute to the early diagnosis and management of health issues, particularly critical for older individuals susceptible to various ailments [89].

In addition, this review revealed that social and societal advancements significantly impact the quality of health for older individuals, with improvements in living conditions and the role of social support leading the charge. Elder-friendly housing options, in-home care services, and assisted living communities reflect positive strides in improving living conditions [96]. However, challenges in affordability and emotional strains persist, emphasizing the need for policies and societal initiatives to address these issues [97]. The correlation with social support and community engagement is evident in the crucial role they play in enhancing the well-being of older people [10]. Strong social networks contribute to mental, emotional, and physical well-being, while community activities and virtual platforms combat social isolation and loneliness [98]. The integration of technology, through virtual communities and online events, offers older individuals’ opportunities for social engagement and connection, highlighting the interrelated nature of technological and social advancements [99].

Moreover, the findings of this study underscored the pivotal role of policy advancements in elevating the health-related quality of life of older individuals. Governments worldwide recognize the significance of quality health care for aging populations and have initiated efforts to enhance accessibility [12]. Subsidies for health care, increased funding for research, and policies promoting active aging demonstrate a commitment to holistic health care [100]. The interplay with global initiatives and programs further emphasizes the collective dedication to constructing inclusive societies [101]. The aging and health program, focusing on age-friendly policies and services, aligns with the broader global initiatives to improve health care access, enhance social inclusion, and provide financial security [102]. However, challenges such as unequal access and regional disparities highlight the need for ongoing assessment and improvements in policy formulation [103].

Furthermore, this study identified that the physical and medical challenges associated with aging, including susceptibility to diseases and limited accessibility to treatments, find their solutions in the integration of advancements. While telemedicine addresses logistical barriers and provides immediate medical care [104], precision medicine [105], and minimally invasive surgeries [106] offer advanced treatment options. Wearable health technology complements these medical interventions by providing real-time data and supporting continuous health monitoring [107]. However, challenges persist in the form of multiple chronic conditions leading to polypharmacy and the need for specialized health care providers [108]. Bridging these gaps requires not solely technological solutions but additionally policy initiatives that ensure the availability and accessibility of advanced medical services for older individuals.

This study also recognized that the psychological challenges faced by older individuals, encompassing mental health issues and social isolation, necessitate a comprehensive approach. Technological advancements, particularly in telemedicine and wearable health technology, extend their utility beyond physical health monitoring to include mental health assessments [109]. However, challenges persist in societal perceptions and stigma surrounding mental health in older individuals [110]. The interrelation with social isolation emphasizes the role of societal initiatives in fostering awareness, reducing stigma, and promoting social engagement [111]. Integrating mental health considerations into policy frameworks becomes essential for ensuring a holistic approach to health care that encompasses both physical and mental well-being [112].

This research also highlighted socioeconomic challenges, such as the affordability of care and health disparities, intersect with advancements in medical treatments and accessibility. While precision medicine and minimally invasive surgeries offer advanced treatment modalities, policies must ensure their affordability and accessibility [113]. Health disparities based on socioeconomic factors, race, ethnicity, and gender underscore the need for equitable health care policies [114]. The interconnection with policy challenges highlights the importance of effective implementation to bridge the gap between policy intentions and practical outcomes [115]. A holistic and interconnected approach is essential for addressing the complex web of challenges in socioeconomic well-being for older individuals [116].

Finally, the review of advancements and challenges in health care for older individuals unveils a dynamic and interconnected landscape. Technological innovations, medical advancements, societal initiatives, and policy formulations collectively contribute to enhancing the health quality and overall well-being of older individuals. Recognizing the intricate web of challenges and advancements is imperative for crafting holistic and effective strategies that address the unique needs of the aging population. As we navigate the evolving landscape of aging and health care, a synergistic approach that leverages the interconnected nature of these advancements becomes paramount for ensuring a healthy and fulfilling aging experience.

5. Conclusions

The advancements in enhancing health-related quality of life for older persons present a promising trajectory for improving the well-being of older individuals. The positive impact of medical breakthroughs, technological innovations, and increased awareness is evident in the strides made to tailor health care services to the specific needs of the older population. The improvements encompass better treatments, enhanced diagnostics, and increased accessibility to healthcare resources. However, it is imperative to recognize and address the persistent challenges that continue to affect health-related quality of life for older people. The highlighted physical and medical challenges, coupled with limited access to treatments and specialized care, underscore the need for focused attention to ensure equitable health care provision for all older people. Additionally, the significance of mental health issues among older people cannot be overstated, emphasizing the necessity for increased recognition and support to enhance overall well-being and quality of life. Moreover, socioeconomic challenges, including care affordability and financial strains, pose formidable barriers to accessing adequate healthcare services for older people. Addressing these challenges requires the implementation of policies that promote affordability and accessibility of healthcare tailored to the unique needs of the older population.

Collaboration among health care professionals, policymakers, researchers, and community organizations is identified as vital to overcoming these obstacles. The pooling of resources, expertise, and knowledge can lead to the development of comprehensive solutions that further enhance health-related quality of life for older people. This collaborative effort involves integrating medical advancements, promoting mental health awareness and support, implementing socioeconomic reforms, and designing supportive policies. The implications of this study extend to the vision of a future where older individuals experience improved health outcomes, enhanced quality of life, and dignified aging. By continuously striving to bridge the gap between advancements and challenges, society can foster an environment that values and supports the health and happiness of all its members, with a specific focus on prioritizing the well-being of our aging population.

Data Availability

Data sharing are not applicable to this article as no new data were created or analyzed in this study.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

Authors’ Contributions

Moustaq Karim Khan Rony, Mst. Rina Parvin, and Khadiza Akter designed the study, collected, organized, and analyzed the data, and drafted the manuscript. Md. Wahiduzzaman and Mohammad Ullah designed the study, conducted data analysis, and assisted in organizing the manuscript. All the authors read and approved the manuscript.


The authors are very pleased to acknowledge—Dr. Hasnat M. Alamgir (Professor and Head, Department of Public Health; State University of Bangladesh), Professor Anisur Rahman Forazy (Principal, International Nursing College, Bangladesh), and Adib Mahmood Tipu (Research Assistant, Action Research for Public Health Development in Bangladesh).