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Advances in Preventive Medicine
Volume 2011, Article ID 148934, 6 pages
Research Article

Who Participates in Seasonal Influenza Vaccination? Past Behavior Moderates the Prediction of Adherence

1Department of Health Psychology, Freie Universität, 14195 Berlin, Germany
2Jacobs Center on Lifelong Learning and Institutional Development, Jacobs University Bremen, 28759 Bremen, Germany
3Warsaw School of Social Sciences and Humanities, 03815 Wroclaw, Poland
4Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma GmbH & Co. KG, Occupational Health Services, 55216 Ingelheim, Germany

Received 24 May 2011; Accepted 24 June 2011

Academic Editor: John Iskander

Copyright © 2011 Anna Ernsting et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Background. Vaccination effectively prevents seasonal influenza. To promote vaccination adherence, it is necessary to understand the motivational process that underlies vaccination behavior. This was examined along with the moderating influence of past behavior on intention formation. Methods. German employees ( 𝑁 = 594) completed questionnaires at baseline and at 7-month followup. Regression analyses were conducted for mediation and moderated mediation. Results. Intention at Time 1 mediated the effect of risk perception, and positive and negative outcome expectancies on Time 2 vaccination. Past behavior moderated this effect: there was a mediation effect for risk perception and outcome expectancies only for those individuals who did not participate annually. Conclusions. Risk perception and outcome expectancies influenced intentions to receive vaccination, which in turn predicted participation. Hence, these social-cognitive variables could be targeted in vaccination campaigns to increase intentions. However, vaccination experience affected the formation of intentions and should be accounted for when developing interventions.