Effects of Routine Checkups and Chronic Conditions on Middle-Aged Patients with DiabetesRead the full article
Advances in Preventive Medicine publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies in all areas of preventive medicine.
Advances in Preventive Medicine maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.
Latest ArticlesMore articles
Determinants of Noncompletion of the Third Dose of Tetanus Toxoid Vaccine in Pregnant Women in Dschang Health District, Cameroon
Introduction. Tetanus vaccination plays an important role in the fight against neonatal mortality. Our study aimed to determine the noncompletion rate of the 3rd dose of tetanus toxoid vaccine (TTV) and to analyze the associated factors in pregnant women. Methods. This was a cross-sectional study conducted in 2 hospitals of Dschang Health District and targeting all women at least in their second gestation coming for antenatal consultation. Upon informed consent by the participant, a prepared questionnaire was administered. The collected data was analyzed using SPSS v22.0 with results presented in means and proportions. Logistic regression was used at two levels to identify independently associated factors for noncompletion of the third dose of TTV with a significance set at 5%. Results. A total of 380 pregnant women were recruited in this study of mean age 27 ± 5.2 yrs, 70% being married, more than 80% having at least secondary education, and 31.8% of them being students. It was noted that 172 (45.26%) of these women had not received the third dose of TTV. The analysis of the adjusted effects showed that not going to postnatal consultation (aOR = 6.75; 3.98–11.49, ), not accompanying her baby to vaccination (aOR = 3.784; 1.803–7.942, ), and being single (aOR = 1.87; 1.05–3.3, ) were independently associated with the above noncompletion rate. Conclusion. Tetanus vaccination coverage is not yet optimal in Dschang Health District and is associated with marital status as well as postgestational behavior of the mothers. There is thus the need to put in place strategies that will provide social support to single mothers as well as encourage women to attend postnatal consultation and to accompany their own children for vaccination. Furthermore, community-based vaccination could capture some of the lost women thus optimizing the overall vaccination coverage.
Self-Collected Specimens Revealed a Higher Vaccine- and Non-Vaccine-Type Human Papillomavirus Prevalences in a Cross-Sectional Study in Akuse
Background. Population-specific epidemiologic data on human Papillomavirus infection, which are limited in most of the SubSaharan African countries, are necessary for effective cervical cancer prevention. This study aimed to generate population-specific data on human Papillomavirus infections, and determine which of these, self-collected and provider-collected specimens, gives a higher estimate of the prevalence of human Papillomaviruses, including vaccine and non-vaccine-type human Papillomavirus. Methods. In this cross-sectional study, following a questionnaire-based collection of epidemiological data, self-, and provider-collected specimens, obtained from women 15−65 years of age, were analysed for human Papillomavirus types by a nested-multiplex polymerase chain reaction, and for cervical lesions by Pap testing. HPV data were categorised according to risk type and vaccine types for further analysis. Results. The difference between the overall human Papillomavirus infection prevalences obtained with the self-collected specimens, 43.1% (95% CI of 38.0–51.0%) and that with the provider-collected samples, 23.3% (95% CI of 19.0–31.0%) were significant (). The prevalence of quadrivalent vaccine-type human Papillomaviruses was 12.3% with self-collected specimens, but 6.0% with provider-collected specimens. For the nonavalent vaccine-types, the prevalences were 26.6% and 16.7% respectively. There were multiple infections involving both vaccine-preventable and nonvaccine preventable high-risk human Papillomavirus genotypes. Conclusion. The Akuse subdistrict can, therefore, be said to have a high burden of human Papillomavirus infections, which included nonvaccine types, as detected with both self-collected and provider-collected specimens. These imply that self-collection is to be given a higher consideration as a means for a population-based high-risk human Papillomavirus infections burdens assessment/screening. Additionally, even with a successful implementation of the HPV vaccination, if introduced in Ghana, there is still the need to continue with the screening of women.
Compliance to Iron-Folic Acid Supplementation and Its Association with the Number of ANC Visits in Ethiopia: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Background. The World Health Organization recommended that 80% of communities in all countries should receive the standard dose of iron folic acid. But, in Ethiopia, this target was not yet achieved. The compliance of iron folic acid was also variable across each district. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess women compliance with iron-folic acid supplementation and its association with a number of antenatal care visits in Ethiopia using systematic review and meta-analysis, 2018. Methods. In the current meta-analysis, the target variables were searched from different electronic database system like PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct, and Cochrane Library. To predict the pooled prevalence of compliance with iron-folic acid supplementation in Ethiopia, all original studies were considered. All necessary data were extracted by using a standardized data extraction format. The data were analyzed by using STATA 14 statistical software. Heterogeneity between the studies was assessed by Cochrane and tests. A random effect model was computed to estimate the pooled compliance with iron-folic acid supplementation. Results. Twelve full-text studies were included in the meta-analysis. The findings of this meta-analysis revealed that the pooled prevalence of compliance with iron-folic acid supplementation in Ethiopia was 43.63% (CI: 28.00, 59.25%). The women from the city administration had a high rate of compliance as compared with other regions of Ethiopia. The odds of having four or more antenatal care visit were the independent pooled predictor of compliance with iron-folic acid supplementation. Conclusion. Current compliance with iron-folic supplementation was lower than the World health organization recommendation. Mothers from the city administration who utilized the antenatal care four and above times, had high level compliance with iron-folic acid supplementation. Therefore, we recommended that women should visit the antenatal clinic four times to compliance with the iron folic acid supplementation.
Nephrolepis exaltata Herbal Mask Increases Nasal IgA Levels and Pulmonary Function in Textile Factory Workers
Background. Chronic occupational exposure in textile workers lowers the pulmonary function and levels of sinonasal IgA. A Nephrolepis exaltata herbal mask can protect the respiratory tract. This study aims to understand the effect of this herbal mask on the IgA levels and pulmonary function in textile workers. Thirty employees were selected for this study. Methods. The pre- and post-test randomized experimental control trials were conducted in a garment industry of Bawen, Semarang, Indonesia. The subjects that qualified to participate (n = 30) fulfilled the inclusion criteria i.e., 20–35 years old, healthy, and willing to be a research subject; and exclusion criteria i.e., having history of alcohol consumption, smoking, history of liver disease, autoimmune disease, cancer, pulmonary and heart disease and/or being pregnant. The subjects were then divided randomly into control group (n = 15), who used regular mask that was rewashed and changed every month for eight weeks, and treatment group (n = 15), who used Nephrolepis exaltata mask that was changed every two days for eight weeks. Pulmonary function tests were carried out using MIR Spirolab III before and after the experiment. IgA levels were measured by nasal wash method using ELISA. Results. IgA levels of the treatment group before and after usage of mask were significantly different () compared to the control group. There were significant difference in FVC of the control group, but no significant difference was observed for FEV1 () and PEF (). In the treatment group, all three parameters showed significant differences [FVC (), FEV1 (), and PEF ()]. The means of ΔFVC, ΔFEV1, and ΔPEF were significantly () higher in the treatment group with OR = 5.1 for higher IgA levels. Conclusions. The herbal mask is better in increasing IgA and improving the pulmonary function compared to the regular mask.
Effective Vaccine Management: The Case of a Rural District in Ghana
Background. The Effective Vaccine Management (EVM) initiative provides the platform needed to monitor and assess the vaccine supply chain system to identify strengths and weaknesses of the system at all levels to enhance the development of improvement plan to strengthen the system. This valuation was carried out in the Tolon District of the Northern Region, Ghana. Methods. A descriptive valuation of vaccine management was carried out in six vaccine stores in the Tolon District of Northern Ghana. We employed World Health Organization (WHO) assessment tools and procedures which consisted of desk reviews and interviews of cold chain managers to assess vaccine management practices in the district. Five out of the nine global assessment criteria were assessed and a minimum target level required for all criteria to meet the WHO standard was 80%. Results. None of the facilities assessed met the WHO benchmark of 80% for all but one criteria assessed. With regards to temperature control, the scores ranged from 42% at Kasuliyili CHPS Centre to 77% at the district store with an average district score of 60%. Stock management ranged between 11% at Wantugu Health Centre and 75% at Nyankpala Health Centre with district average score of 32%. Effective vaccine distribution scores ranged between 13% at Kasuliyili CHPS and 46% at Nyankpala Health Centre with an average district score of 27%. Only Nyankpala Health Centre had an acceptable score of 84% for vaccine management, whereas the lowest score for this indicator was 5% at Tolon Health Centre store with district average score of 53%. Information management and supportive functions scores ranged from 0% at Tolon Health Centre to 26% at the district store with the district average score of 16%. Nineteen (90.5%) of vaccine users had poor knowledge regarding temperature control and vaccine distribution. Conclusion. Effective vaccine management knowledge and practices are poor at Tonlon district and calls for urgent and pragmatic approaches such as training and re-training of vaccine users at all levels.
Bacterial Infections and Their Antibiotic Resistance Pattern in Ethiopia: A Systematic Review
Background. Antibiotic resistance is a global challenge in the public health sector and also a major challenge in Ethiopia. It is truly difficult to report bacterial antibiotic resistance pattern in Ethiopia due to the absence of a review which is done comprehensively. The aim of this systematic review was to provide an overview of the works of literature on the antibiotic resistance pattern of the specific bacterial isolates that can be obtained from different clinical samples in the context of Ethiopia. Materials and Methods. A web-based search using PubMed, Google Scholar, Hinari, Sci Hub, Scopus and the Directory of Open Access Journals was conducted from April to May 2018 for published studies without restriction in the year of publication. Works of literature potentially relevant to the study were identified by Boolean search technique using various keywords: Bacterial infection, antimicrobial resistance, antibiotic resistance, drug resistance, drug susceptibility, anti-bacterial resistance, Ethiopia. Study that perform susceptibility test from animal or healthy source using <10 isolates and methods other than prospective cross-sectional were excluded. Results. The database search delivered a total of 3459 studies. After amendment for duplicates and inclusion and exclusion criteria, 39 articles were found suitable for the systematic review. All studies were prospective cross-sectional in nature. The review encompasses 12 gram-positive and 15 gram-negative bacteria with their resistance pattern for around 12 antibiotics. It covers most of the regions which are found in Ethiopia. The resistance pattern of the isolates ranged from 0% up to 100%. The overall resistance of M. tuberculosis for antituberculosis drugs ranges from 0% up to 32.6%. The percentage of resistance increases among previously treated tuberculosis cases. Neisseria gonorrhea, S. typhimurium, S. Virchow, Group A Streptococci (GAS), and Group B Streptococci (GBS) were highly susceptible for most of the tested antibiotics. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus was highly resistant to most of the antibiotics with a slightly increased susceptibility to gentamycin. Conclusions. Total bacterial isolates obtained from a different source of sample and geographic areas were 28, including M. tuberculosis. Majority of the bacterial isolates were resistant to commonly used antibiotics. A continuous monitoring and studies on the multidrug-resistant bacterial isolates are important measures.