Advances in Preventive Medicine
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Advances in Preventive Medicine publishes original research articles and review articles in all areas of preventive medicine.

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Advances in Preventive Medicine maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.

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Research Article

Clinical and Histopathological Factors Associated with the Tumoral Expression of TGF-β1, MED15, CD16, and CD57 in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Introduction. Factors associated with the expression of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) biomarkers “CD16, CD57, TGF-β1, and MED15” are not assessed, except in few controversial studies of some of these biomarkers. This study aimed to highlight factors that can correlate with tumoral overexpression of these biomarkers. Methods. In this genetically-matched case-control study, biomarker expressions in all available OSCC tissues and their adjacent normal tissues at the National Tumor Center (n = 384 (4 biomarkers × (48 cancers + 48 controls))) were measured using qRT-PCR. Factors associated with tumoral overexpression of CD16, CD57, TGF-β1, and MED15 (compared to the benign control) were evaluated, using log-level multiple linear regressions and Spearman (α = 0.05). Results. Tumoral CD16 upregulation was observed in younger patients (β = −0.284, ) and cigarette smokers (β = 0.397, ). Tumoral CD57 was upregulated in males (β = 0.341, ), smokers (β = 0.401, ), and cases without vascular invasion (β = −0.242, ). Tumoral TGF-β1 was elevated in smokers (β = 0.452, ) and smaller tumors (β = −0.322, ). Tumoral MED15 was overexpressed in smokers (β = 0.295, ) and cases lacking perineural invasion (β = −0.394, ). Conclusion. As the most consistent finding, smoking might be positively associated with tumoral overexpression of all biomarkers. Tumoral increase in CD57 might be positively associated with metastasis while being negatively correlated with vascular and lymphatic invasion. Tumor size might be negatively associated with tumoral TGF-β1 expression.

Review Article

Prevalence of Caries among School Children in Saudi Arabia: A Meta-Analysis

Introduction. Children’s dental health has become the primary concern, because of the increase in the prevalence of caries amongst school children in Saudi Arabia. Therefore, a meta-analysis was conducted to assess the prevalence and severity of dental caries among school children in Saudi Arabia. Method. A systematic search of Scopus, ISI Web of Science, EMBASE, Saudi digital library, Google Scholar, and MEDLINE via Ovid for cross-sectional studies with healthy participants between 5and –15 years. Two authors independently extracted the prevalence of caries. With 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using a random-effects model, we calculated caries prevalence. Results. Dental caries prevalence data were extracted from 18 cross-sectional studies (n = 56,327 children). The pooled estimate for the caries prevalence among 5–7 years’ children was 84% (95% CI: 0.81–0.87%; I2 = 91%) while among 12–15 years’ children was 72% (95% CI: 0.63–0.79; I2 = 96.2%). Discussion. In this systematic review, the summary estimate of the prevalence of dental caries among children of 5–7 years and 12–15 years were 84% and 72%, respectively. Further research is required to identify approaches for preventing and treating dental caries in schoolchildren.

Research Article

Effectiveness of a Community Health Worker-Led Intervention on Knowledge, Perception, and Prostate Cancer Screening among Men in Rural Kenya

Background. Globally, an increase in mortality from prostate cancer (PC) remains a big challenge with disparities existing with a slight preponderance among men in low and middle-income countries. Prostate cancer is a leading cause of mortality among men in sub-Saharan Africa. In Kenya, despite the majority of men presenting with advanced prostate cancer for treatment, knowledge and screening for prostate cancer is low. The study aimed to examine the effectiveness of a community health worker-led education intervention on knowledge, perception, and PC screening. Methods. This was a quasiexperimental study among Kenyan men aged 40–69 years. The intervention site was Gatundu North subcounty and the control site was Kiambu subcounty in Kiambu County. Stratified random sampling was applied to select 288 respondents per arm of the study. We used a pretested interviewer-administered questionnaire to collect data at baseline and 6 months postintervention. Pearson’s chi-square test was used for data analysis. Results. Awareness of prostate cancer significantly increased postintervention . The proportion of respondents who had good knowledge of prostate cancer increased significantly from 49% to 76.4% in the intervention arm. The proportion of respondents with a high perception of self-vulnerability increased significantly from 26% to 42.1% . The proportion of men who had undergone PC screening significantly increased from 4.5% to 20.4% in the intervention arm. In postintervention, there was a statistically significant difference in the proportion of men screened for prostate cancer in the intervention and control arm . Conclusion. Health education by community health workers during household visits increased awareness and knowledge, perception, and uptake of PC screening. Utilization of community health worker delivered education is an effective strategy that requires to be adopted to enhance screening.

Research Article

Association between ApoA1 Gene, Plasma Lipid Profile, hsCRP Level, and Risk of Arterial Stiffness in Thai Elderly

Introduction. Apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1) gene polymorphism is linked to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. Variations in this gene, along with dyslipidemia and inflammation, may increase the risk of vascular stiffness. This study aimed to investigate the link between ApoA1 rs670 genetic variations, various biochemical parameters, and the risk of arterial stiffness in older people. Methods. This population-based cross-sectional study included 355 participants (≥60 years) who completed a demographic and lifestyle information questionnaire. Clinical and anthropometric examination, biochemical analysis, and ApoA1 rs670 genotyping by real-time PCR were performed. The cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) was used to assess arterial stiffness. Results. Age, BMI, waist circumference, SBP, LDL-C, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) were associated with high CAVI (≥9) among older people. The mean CAVI (8.19 ± 2.78) for the ApoA1 rs670 AA genotype was lower than that of the GG genotypes (8.94 ± 1.00, ). These results are supported by HDL-C (OR = 0.47, 95% CI: 0.24–0.93; ) and high hs-CRP (OR = 0.30, 95% CI: 0.16–0.57; ) levels together with adjusted ORs of both variables. Conclusion. ApoA1 rs670 genetic variations involved in the synthesis, transport, and processing of HDLs, hypertension, and inflammation are linked to arterial stiffness. Further studies are required to clarify these mechanisms.

Research Article

The Perception of Nursing Professionals Working in a Central Sterile Supplies Department regarding Health Conditions, Workload, Ergonomic Risks, and Functional Readaptation

Background. The central sterile supply department (CSSD) is wrongly seen as a place in the hospital environment that does not require skills and physical effort, being commonly a hospital sector for the relocation of functionally-readapted professionals. However, CSSD is a work environment that demands professional experience and presents itself as a sector that does not have a healthy work environment. This study aims to evaluate the frequency of comorbidities and functionally-readapted people among nursing professionals allocated to a CSSD and, also, to seek the perception of these professionals about the ergonomic risks and the degree of difficulty to perform activities within a CSSD. Methods. This is a cross-sectional study that analyzed the opinions of nursing professionals who work in the CSSD of public hospitals in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Nurses, nursing technicians and nursing assistants aged ≥18 years were included. Results. Seventy-two nursing professionals were consecutively evaluated. It was observed that 43 of them (59.7%) had never worked in a CSSD. The most prevalent comorbidity in the present study was chronic rhinosinusitis, observed in more than half of the sample, although it is interesting to note the high frequency of participants with work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSD) and repetitive strain injuries (RSI). There is a relationship between previous work in a CSSD and the ability to identify surgical tweezers by visual recognition (). There is a relationship between the time the participant had previously worked in the hospital and the skill regarding the information contained in the conference folders for preparing the tray surgical procedures (τb = −0.34, ). Conclusion. Almost a third of nursing professionals working in a CSSD are rehabilitated, with a high prevalence of WMSD and RSI. The commitment of managers to an internal health policy aimed at workers is necessary for health promotion.

Review Article

Hand Hygiene Compliance and Associated Factors among Healthcare Workers in Ethiopia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Background. Promoting hand hygiene compliance should be a priority for health authorities and all healthcare facilities at all levels. Therefore, this systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to provide a pooled estimate of hand hygiene compliance and associated factors among healthcare professionals in Ethiopia. Methods. PubMed, Science Direct, EMBASE, the Google search engine, and Google Scholar were used to retrieve studies that were eligible for the study. The searches included all studies published in English prior to July 2021. Using a structured data extraction format, two authors independently extracted the required data. STATA Version 16 software has been used for statistical analysis. To measure the heterogeneity of the studies, the Cochrane Q-test statistics and I2 test were used. Because of the significant heterogeneity, a random-effects model was used. Results. The pooled hand hygiene compliance among healthcare workers in Ethiopia was 38% (95% CI: 0.16–0.59). According to the study’s subgroup analysis, Addis Ababa City administration health workers had the highest hand hygiene compliance, at 73% (95% CI: 0.50–0.96), while SNNP regional state had the lowest, at 9% (95% CI: 0.05–0.13). Presence of hand hygiene promotion (OR: 2.14, 95% CI: 1.04–3.24), towel/tissue paper availability (OR: 3.97, 95% CI: 2.09–5.86), having a positive attitude toward hand hygiene (OR: 1.79, 95% CI: 1.28–2.30), having good knowledge about hand hygiene (OR: 3.45, 95% CI: 1.26–5.64), and being trained for hand hygiene (OR:4.97, 95% CI:1.81–8.14) were significantly associated with hand hygiene compliance. Conclusion. In this analysis, hand hygiene compliance among healthcare workers in Ethiopia was less than half. Providing hand hygiene promotion, towel/tissue paper presence, having a positive attitude toward hand hygiene, having good knowledge about hand hygiene, and being trained for hand hygiene were important variables for the increment of hand hygiene compliance.

Advances in Preventive Medicine
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Article of the Year Award: Outstanding research contributions of 2021, as selected by our Chief Editors. Read the winning articles.