Advances in Preventive Medicine
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Advances in Preventive Medicine publishes original research articles and review articles in all areas of preventive medicine.

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Advances in Preventive Medicine maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.

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Research Article

Prevalence and Factors Associated with Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting in an Ethiopian Comprehensive Specialized Hospital

Background. Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is a common and uncomfortable anesthetic and surgical consequences. It may cause severe distress to the patient and may cause the recovery process to be delayed. Identifying the reasons may aid in reducing the magnitude and problems. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors for PONV after general anesthesia in an Ethiopian hospital. Methods. From March 1 to May 30, 2019, a cross-sectional study was designed. A patient interview was used to obtain data on the occurrence of PONV, and a chart review was used to collect data on other demographic and clinical variables. To identify associated factors, variables with a P-value of 0.2 in binary logistic regression were transformed into a multivariable logistic regression. The strength of the association and level of significance waswere demonstrated using crude and adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals and P-values of 0.05. Results. The study included 162 participants, with a remarkable 100% response rate. Within 24 hr after surgery, 51.2% of patients had nausea and vomiting. When compared to their counterparts, female patients, patients who received perioperative opioid medication, patients with a history of PONV, and patients with a history of motion sickness reported a statistically significant difference (higher incidence) in PONV. Conclusion. This study only comprised ASA physical classes 1 and 2 patients who did not receive preventive antiemetics. In the research area, the total prevalence of vomiting and nausea was 51.2%. Female sex, perioperative opioid usage, a history of nausea and vomiting, and a history of motion sickness were discovered to be statistically significantly associated with a higher incidence of PONV.

Research Article

Financial Losses Arising from Cattle Organ and Carcass Condemnation at Lokoloko Abattoir in Wau, South Sudan

Slaughterhouses in South Sudan mirror the economic losses resulting from cattle organs and carcass condemnation due to zoonotic and epizootic diseases of livestock, such as tuberculosis, cysticercosis, and hydatidosis in cattle. However, due to the war, slaughterhouse record keeping has been inconsistent in South Sudan, and thus the estimation of diseases in cattle and their impact may be underestimated. Therefore, this study was conducted to estimate the major causes of carcasses and organ condemnation of cattle slaughtered at Lokoloko abattoir and the resulting financial losses. A cross-sectional active abattoir survey involving antemortem and postmortem examinations was conducted on 310 cattle between January 2021 and March 2021. Furthermore, five-year (September 2015–September 2020) retrospective data on meat inspection records were also collected and analyzed. During the antemortem inspection of the active abattoir survey, 103 (33.2%) cattle had signs of disease. These signs included herniam 17 (5.5%), local swelling 16 (5.2%), lameness 15 (4.8%), emaciation 13 (4.2%), blindness 12 (3.9%), depression 11 (3.5%), pale mucus membrane 7 (2.3%), nasal discharge 5 (1.6%), lacrimation 4 (1.3%), and salivation 03 (0.97%). Postmortem inspection revealed gross pathological findings on 180 (58.6%) carcasses, out of which 47 (26.1%) livers and 31 (17.2%) hearts were condemned due to various causes. The active abattoir survey and the retrospective data revealed that tuberculosis, fascioliasis, hydatidosis, and heart cysticercosis were the leading causes of condemnation of carcasses and organs. In the active abattoir survey, a total of 19,592,508 South Sudanese Pounds, equivalent to US$29,686 was lost from organ condemnation, while in the retrospective data; the overall direct financial loss during the five years was estimated to be 299,225,807 South Sudanese Pounds equivalent to US$453,372. This study revealed that bacterial and parasitic diseases were the common causes of carcass and organ condemnations and caused significant financial losses at Lokoloko abattoir in Wau, South Sudan. Therefore, there is a need for training farmers on cattle disease management, heightened meat inspections, and proper disposal of condemned meat.

Research Article

Clinical and Histopathological Factors Associated with the Tumoral Expression of TGF-β1, MED15, CD16, and CD57 in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Introduction. Factors associated with the expression of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) biomarkers “CD16, CD57, TGF-β1, and MED15” are not assessed, except in few controversial studies of some of these biomarkers. This study aimed to highlight factors that can correlate with tumoral overexpression of these biomarkers. Methods. In this genetically-matched case-control study, biomarker expressions in all available OSCC tissues and their adjacent normal tissues at the National Tumor Center (n = 384 (4 biomarkers × (48 cancers + 48 controls))) were measured using qRT-PCR. Factors associated with tumoral overexpression of CD16, CD57, TGF-β1, and MED15 (compared to the benign control) were evaluated, using log-level multiple linear regressions and Spearman (α = 0.05). Results. Tumoral CD16 upregulation was observed in younger patients (β = −0.284, ) and cigarette smokers (β = 0.397, ). Tumoral CD57 was upregulated in males (β = 0.341, ), smokers (β = 0.401, ), and cases without vascular invasion (β = −0.242, ). Tumoral TGF-β1 was elevated in smokers (β = 0.452, ) and smaller tumors (β = −0.322, ). Tumoral MED15 was overexpressed in smokers (β = 0.295, ) and cases lacking perineural invasion (β = −0.394, ). Conclusion. As the most consistent finding, smoking might be positively associated with tumoral overexpression of all biomarkers. Tumoral increase in CD57 might be positively associated with metastasis while being negatively correlated with vascular and lymphatic invasion. Tumor size might be negatively associated with tumoral TGF-β1 expression.

Review Article

Prevalence of Caries among School Children in Saudi Arabia: A Meta-Analysis

Introduction. Children’s dental health has become the primary concern, because of the increase in the prevalence of caries amongst school children in Saudi Arabia. Therefore, a meta-analysis was conducted to assess the prevalence and severity of dental caries among school children in Saudi Arabia. Method. A systematic search of Scopus, ISI Web of Science, EMBASE, Saudi digital library, Google Scholar, and MEDLINE via Ovid for cross-sectional studies with healthy participants between 5and –15 years. Two authors independently extracted the prevalence of caries. With 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using a random-effects model, we calculated caries prevalence. Results. Dental caries prevalence data were extracted from 18 cross-sectional studies (n = 56,327 children). The pooled estimate for the caries prevalence among 5–7 years’ children was 84% (95% CI: 0.81–0.87%; I2 = 91%) while among 12–15 years’ children was 72% (95% CI: 0.63–0.79; I2 = 96.2%). Discussion. In this systematic review, the summary estimate of the prevalence of dental caries among children of 5–7 years and 12–15 years were 84% and 72%, respectively. Further research is required to identify approaches for preventing and treating dental caries in schoolchildren.

Research Article

Effectiveness of a Community Health Worker-Led Intervention on Knowledge, Perception, and Prostate Cancer Screening among Men in Rural Kenya

Background. Globally, an increase in mortality from prostate cancer (PC) remains a big challenge with disparities existing with a slight preponderance among men in low and middle-income countries. Prostate cancer is a leading cause of mortality among men in sub-Saharan Africa. In Kenya, despite the majority of men presenting with advanced prostate cancer for treatment, knowledge and screening for prostate cancer is low. The study aimed to examine the effectiveness of a community health worker-led education intervention on knowledge, perception, and PC screening. Methods. This was a quasiexperimental study among Kenyan men aged 40–69 years. The intervention site was Gatundu North subcounty and the control site was Kiambu subcounty in Kiambu County. Stratified random sampling was applied to select 288 respondents per arm of the study. We used a pretested interviewer-administered questionnaire to collect data at baseline and 6 months postintervention. Pearson’s chi-square test was used for data analysis. Results. Awareness of prostate cancer significantly increased postintervention . The proportion of respondents who had good knowledge of prostate cancer increased significantly from 49% to 76.4% in the intervention arm. The proportion of respondents with a high perception of self-vulnerability increased significantly from 26% to 42.1% . The proportion of men who had undergone PC screening significantly increased from 4.5% to 20.4% in the intervention arm. In postintervention, there was a statistically significant difference in the proportion of men screened for prostate cancer in the intervention and control arm . Conclusion. Health education by community health workers during household visits increased awareness and knowledge, perception, and uptake of PC screening. Utilization of community health worker delivered education is an effective strategy that requires to be adopted to enhance screening.

Research Article

Association between ApoA1 Gene, Plasma Lipid Profile, hsCRP Level, and Risk of Arterial Stiffness in Thai Elderly

Introduction. Apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1) gene polymorphism is linked to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. Variations in this gene, along with dyslipidemia and inflammation, may increase the risk of vascular stiffness. This study aimed to investigate the link between ApoA1 rs670 genetic variations, various biochemical parameters, and the risk of arterial stiffness in older people. Methods. This population-based cross-sectional study included 355 participants (≥60 years) who completed a demographic and lifestyle information questionnaire. Clinical and anthropometric examination, biochemical analysis, and ApoA1 rs670 genotyping by real-time PCR were performed. The cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) was used to assess arterial stiffness. Results. Age, BMI, waist circumference, SBP, LDL-C, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) were associated with high CAVI (≥9) among older people. The mean CAVI (8.19 ± 2.78) for the ApoA1 rs670 AA genotype was lower than that of the GG genotypes (8.94 ± 1.00, ). These results are supported by HDL-C (OR = 0.47, 95% CI: 0.24–0.93; ) and high hs-CRP (OR = 0.30, 95% CI: 0.16–0.57; ) levels together with adjusted ORs of both variables. Conclusion. ApoA1 rs670 genetic variations involved in the synthesis, transport, and processing of HDLs, hypertension, and inflammation are linked to arterial stiffness. Further studies are required to clarify these mechanisms.

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