Determinant of Mother’s Health Promotional Measures Practice of Infant with Age 6–12 Months in a Tertiary Hospital of NepalRead the full article
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Prevalence of Hepatitis C Virus Infection among Pregnant Women in Ethiopia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Background. Hepatitis C virus infection during pregnancy is associated with a high risk of maternal complications and poor birth outcomes. There are variable reports on the prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection among pregnant women in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study aims to estimate the pooled prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection among pregnant women in Ethiopia. Methods. A comprehensive search of electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, Web of Sciences, and Google Scholar was conducted from April 03, 2020, to May 03, 2020. The quality of included article was evaluated by the JBI. Heterogeneity between the studies was assessed using Cochrane Q and I2 test. The presence of publication bias was tested by funnel plots and Egger’s test. A random-effects meta-analysis was computed to determine the pooled prevalence of HCV infection among pregnant women. Results. Of 502 studies, 6 studies with a total of 2117 pregnant women were included in the meta-analysis. The overall pooled prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection among pregnant women in Ethiopia was 1.83% (95% CI: 0.61, 3.06). Besides, subgroup analysis revealed that the highest HCV prevalence among pregnant women was observed in Oromia region, 5.10% (95% CI: −0.53, 10.73). Conclusions. This study shows an intermediate level of HCV infection among pregnant women in Ethiopia. The finding suggests the need of implementing a routine hepatitis C virus screening program for all pregnant women, which enables women to access HCV antiviral treatment to minimize vertical transmission to the newborn infants. Moreover, national and regional health programs should mandate and monitor the screening procedures so as to reduce the risk of hepatitis C virus infection.
Evaluation of Exposure to Toluene and Xylene in Gasoline Station Workers
The main volatile organic compounds found at gasoline stations are benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene isomers (BTEX). They cause several harmful effects on human health. Regulatory Norm 7 (1978) provides that, in Brazil, biological monitoring of toluene and xylene is carried out by measuring the urinary metabolites hippuric acid (HA) and methylhippuric acid (MHA), respectively. The objective of this study was to assess the exposure to toluene and xylene and to identify related signs and symptoms in gasoline station workers. A cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted with workers occupationally exposed to fuels. These gasoline station workers were divided into two groups: 94 workers exposed mainly by inhalation (convenience store workers (CSWs)) and 181 workers exposed by inhalation and dermal route (filling station attendants (FSAs)). A comparison group was formed by 119 workers not occupationally exposed to fuels (office workers (OWs)). Workers exposed to fuels had higher average levels of these exposure biomarkers (HA and MHA), which were also higher in convenience store workers than in filling station attendants. In addition, individuals exposed to the solvents present in gasoline had altered mood/depression, cramps, dizziness, drowsiness, headaches, irritability/nervousness, weakness, weight loss, and other symptoms more frequently and had higher urinary levels of HA and MHA compared to the comparison group. Gasoline station workers showed high levels of HA and MHA, reflecting high occupational exposure to the solvents toluene and xylene present in gasoline, demonstrating that changes in the current legislation and in the work environment are necessary to ensure better health protection for these workers.
Associated Factors for Dropout of First Vs Third Doses of Diphtheria Tetanus Pertussis (DPT) Vaccination in Nepal
Background. Immunization acts as a key intervention to reduce under-five mortality and morbidity. Despite global progress on vaccination, difficulties in the utilization of this service in developing countries have been observed. According to Nepal Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) 2016, only 78% of children received a complete dose of vaccine among which the first-dose receiver of DPT is 98%, whereas only 83% received a third dose. This study aims to explore the influencing factors of DPT vaccination dropout in Nepal. Methods. The explorative study was done through secondary data analysis of NDHS 2016. The KR file was used for the analysis of information for 2883 children. Factors influencing dropout of DPT vaccination were explored against the independent variables such as external environment, predisposing factors, and enabling resources. All the analyses were weighted before the analysis. The descriptive, bivariate, and multivariate analyses were performed. The variables showing collinearity have been removed in the final model. Results. A higher dropout was reported in Terai (18.9%) and province 2 (22.0%), among uneducated mothers (18.1%) and uneducated fathers (19.4%), less than once a week internet users (22.2%), the nonradio listener (17.4%), who had <4 ANC visits (22.7%), home delivery (19.2%), no advised SBA (19.1%), long distance to health facility (17.9%), no iron supplementation in pregnancy (24.3%), and PNC by TBA/others (21.1%). All these tested relationships were found statistically significant ( value <0.05). The aOR for dropout was found to be 7.94 (4.07–15.51) for mothers with less than 4 or no ANC visit, long distance to health facility 4.68 (1.98–10.67), province 2 3.53 (1.13–11.03), and mother without formal employment 2.33 (1.52–3.55). Conclusion. Factors related to health services, distance, provinces, and socioeconomic status of the family were influencers for vaccine dropout. Targeted intervention towards disadvantaged regions, counseling the mother during ANC, improving the education status of parents, access to the health facility, and use of mass media for advocacy are hereby recommended.
Prevention of Vascular Calcification by Magnesium and Selected Polyphenols
Arterial vascular calcification (VC) represents formation of calcium phosphate deposits on the interior of arteries, which could restrict blood flow leading to heart health problems, including morbidity and mortality. VC is a complex and tightly regulated process that involves transformation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) to bone-like cells and subsequent deposition of calcium as hydroxyapatite. Natural bioactives, including quercetin (Q), curcumin (C), resveratrol (R), and magnesium (Mg), have been reported to inhibit VC. Thus, we conducted an in vitro study using rat vascular smooth muscle cells (rVSMCs) to evaluate the protective effect of natural bioactives found in OptiCel, that is, Mg combined with polyphenols (PPs), Q, C, and R. Calcification was induced by culturing rVSMCs in a high phosphate (HP) medium. The addition of Mg and Q + C + R separately decreased the HP-induced calcium deposition by 37.55% and 42.78%, respectively. In contrast, when Mg was combined with Q, C, and R, the inhibition of calcium deposition was decreased by 92.88%, which is greater than their calculated additive inhibition (80.33%). These results demonstrate that the combination of Mg with selected PPs (Q, C, and R) is more effective than when used separately. The findings also suggest the combination has a synergistic effect in inhibiting VC, which is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Thus, regular consumption of these natural bioactives could have a beneficial effect in reducing the development of heart diseases.
Diet Quality Indices and Their Correlation with Glycemic Status and Lipid Profile in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes
Background. The study aimed to determine the correlation between different diet quality indices and glycemic status and lipid profile in patients with diabetes. Methods. This study was carried out on 235 patients with type 2 diabetes referred to Martyr Motahari Diabetes Clinic of Shiraz city so as to investigate the relationship between glycemic status and lipid profile and the diet quality using Healthy Eating Index (HEI-2010), phytochemical index (PI), and Diet Quality Index-International (DQI_I). Results. A positive correlation was indicated between the serum levels of LDL-C and HEI-2010 scores . Furthermore, there was a positive correlation between the patients’ age and scores of PI and between PI and DQI_I . There was no significant relationship between the scores for all three indicators and biochemical parameters. Conclusion. The results of this study indicated that there was a significant correlation between the serum LDL-C levels and the HEI-2010 scores. Moreover, the age of the patients had a direct correlation with the PI scores.
The Effect of Self-Care Training on Blood Sugar Control, HbA1C Level, and Life Quality of Diabetic Patients in Birjand, East of Iran: A Randomized Clinical Trial Study
Background. As one of the most important public health problems worldwide, diabetes is closely linked with patients’ lifestyles. The optimal approach to treating diabetes is to prevent it. Our aim in this study was to assess the impact of self-care behaviors on quality of life, blood sugar control, and HbA1C level in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods. This randomized clinical trial examined 100 diabetic women referred to Ghadir Comprehensive Health Center in Birjand in 2019. A 5 cc fasting blood sample was taken from each participant. The participants were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. For the experimental group, a 10-session self-care training workshop was held. Baseline and postintervention fasting blood glucose, HbA1C level, and life quality of the two groups were assessed and compared six months after the intervention. Data were analyzed in SPSS (16). Results. In the experimental group, the mean serum HbA1C level decreased from the baseline 7.5 ± 1.5 to 6.3 ± 1.0 (). Fasting blood sugar in the intervention group decreased from 136.3 ± 43.5 to 127.3 ± 22.9, but the reduction was not significant (). The mean scores of the quality of life () and the visual analogue scale (P < 0.001) in the experimental group increased significantly compared to the control group. Conclusion. Self-care training for diabetic women had positive effects on both life quality and disease control. Therefore, it is recommended that self-care training be delivered and taken more seriously by physicians and health care providers in addition to drug therapy.