Advances in Preventive Medicine
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Acceptance rate15%
Submission to final decision42 days
Acceptance to publication56 days
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Advances in Preventive Medicine publishes original research articles and review articles in all areas of preventive medicine.

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Advances in Preventive Medicine maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.

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Research Article

Comparison of Different Waves during the COVID-19 Pandemic: Retrospective Descriptive Study in Thailand

Background. Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by a newly discovered coronavirus. An outbreak is called an epidemic when there is a sudden increase in cases. Many countries have experienced a two-wave pattern in the reported cases of COVID-19. The spread of COVID-19 in Thailand was a cluster event distributed over multiple locations. This study aims to compare the characteristics of different waves during the COVID-19 pandemic in Thailand. Methods. A retrospective cohort study was conducted from January 2020 to May 2021 (17 months) to determine the number of COVID-19 screenings and confirmed cases and deaths as well as sociodemographic characteristics such as gender, age, nationality, and source population at risk factors. The categorical data were compared using a chi-square test. Results. Three waves of the COVID-19 pandemic occurred within 17 months in Thailand, and the number of cases increased by over 100,000 due to source population at risk factors such as close contact with a previously confirmed patient, community risk, cluster communities, and active and community surveillance. The chi-square test revealed significant differences between the three waves (). Conclusion. Significant differences between pandemic phases or waves may be due to weak social distancing policies and the lack of public health interventions. A COVID-19 vaccination plan is needed for people at risk of suffering severe symptoms and the general population in outbreak areas to increase immunity.

Research Article

Assessment of the Relationship between Oral Health Behavior, Oral Hygiene, and Gingival Status of Adolescent Tobacco Consumers in Ranchi, Jharkhand: A Comparative Study

Background. Tobacco consumption is very prevalent in India and associated with a number of oral health problems. Good oral health behavior plays a significant role in improving oral hygiene status. Objectives. To assess the relationship between the oral health behavior, oral hygiene, and gingival status of adolescent tobacco consumers (smoke/smokeless form) and to compare it with that of the nonconsumers of tobacco in the same age group, who were selected from the OPD of Dental Institute, RIMS. Methods. This was a cross-sectional study carried out in Ranchi. The study included a total of 400 adolescents who were reported to be consumers of tobacco and 400 adolescents who were nonconsumers of tobacco. The oral health behavior was assessed using HU-DBI. The plaque and gingival scores were assessed using standardized indices. Data were analyzed using the Chi-square test, independent sample t-test, and Pearson’s correlation. The significance level was set at . Results. The majority of tobacco consumers were found to have poor plaque scores as assessed using the plaque index. As assessed by the gingival index, the majority of the tobacco consumers were found to have a severe form of gingivitis. The mean plaque score (2.38 ± 0.51, value <0.001) and the mean gingival score (2.6 ± 0.63, value <0.001) were significantly higher in tobacco consumers. The mean HU-DBI score was significantly higher in non-tobacco consumers (8.3 ± 1.60, value <0.001). It was observed that the gingival and plaque scores have a significant negative correlation with the HU-DBI score. The majority of tobacco consumers were worried about the staining of teeth and bleeding from gums. A dental visit for a routine preventive check-up was reported to be rare in both groups. Conclusion. The oral hygiene and gingival status were significantly poor in tobacco consumers compared to non-tobacco consumers. As the oral health behavior of the participants improved, the plaque and gingival scores reduced significantly.

Research Article

Determinant of Mother’s Health Promotional Measures Practice of Infant with Age 6–12 Months in a Tertiary Hospital of Nepal

Background. Promotion of health is vital for the optimal growth and development of every infant. Globally, many infants died due to common problems such as diarrhoea and respiratory infection; most of these problems are related to inadequate breast feeding, improper complimentary feeding, lack of immunization, and home accident. Infant and child health status depends upon mothers’ knowledge and practice regarding health promotional measures. This study aimed to determine practice and its determinants regarding health promotional measures of infant with 6–12 months age amongst the mothers attending Pediatrics Outpatient Department of Universal College of Medical Science and Teaching Hospital, Bhairahawa, Rupandehi, Nepal. Methods. Hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Universal College of Medical Science, Bhairahawa, Rupandehi, Nepal, among 414 mothers attending pediatrics outpatient department from September 2019–March 2020. Purposive sampling technique was used to select mothers of infants aged 6–12 months. Bivariate analysis was used primarily to assess the association between dependent and independent variables. Variables which were associated in bivariate analysis with were entered into a multivariable logistic regression model to identify associated factors of health promotional measures. The goodness of fit of multivariate logistic regression was checked by Nagelkerke R square and variation inflation factor. Results. The mean age and family size was 25.89 ± 4.81 years and 5.94 ± 2.48, respectively. A total of 71.5% mothers have good practice of health promotional measures. Mothers from Dalit caste (adjusted odds ratio = 0.04, confidence interval: 0.005–0.30), mothers with below school leaving certificate education (AOR = 0.08, CI: 0.02–0.27), fathers engaged in nonagricultural work (AOR = 7.21, CI: 2.59–20.11), birth space of index child greater than 2 years (AOR = 12.88, CI: 3.49–47.58), and family monthly income greater than 20000 Nepalese rupees (AOR = 3.29, CI: 1.16–13.32 were significantly associated with good practice of health promotional measures. Conclusions. More than one-fourth of the mothers have poor practice of health promotional measures. Ethnicity, mothers’ education, fathers’ occupation, birth space of index child, and family monthly income were found to be independent determinants of practice of health promotion measures. Thus, policy makers should provide specific education regarding health promotional measures to both parents.

Research Article

Prevalence of Hepatitis C Virus Infection among Pregnant Women in Ethiopia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Background. Hepatitis C virus infection during pregnancy is associated with a high risk of maternal complications and poor birth outcomes. There are variable reports on the prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection among pregnant women in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study aims to estimate the pooled prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection among pregnant women in Ethiopia. Methods. A comprehensive search of electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, Web of Sciences, and Google Scholar was conducted from April 03, 2020, to May 03, 2020. The quality of included article was evaluated by the JBI. Heterogeneity between the studies was assessed using Cochrane Q and I2 test. The presence of publication bias was tested by funnel plots and Egger’s test. A random-effects meta-analysis was computed to determine the pooled prevalence of HCV infection among pregnant women. Results. Of 502 studies, 6 studies with a total of 2117 pregnant women were included in the meta-analysis. The overall pooled prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection among pregnant women in Ethiopia was 1.83% (95% CI: 0.61, 3.06). Besides, subgroup analysis revealed that the highest HCV prevalence among pregnant women was observed in Oromia region, 5.10% (95% CI: −0.53, 10.73). Conclusions. This study shows an intermediate level of HCV infection among pregnant women in Ethiopia. The finding suggests the need of implementing a routine hepatitis C virus screening program for all pregnant women, which enables women to access HCV antiviral treatment to minimize vertical transmission to the newborn infants. Moreover, national and regional health programs should mandate and monitor the screening procedures so as to reduce the risk of hepatitis C virus infection.

Research Article

Evaluation of Exposure to Toluene and Xylene in Gasoline Station Workers

The main volatile organic compounds found at gasoline stations are benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene isomers (BTEX). They cause several harmful effects on human health. Regulatory Norm 7 (1978) provides that, in Brazil, biological monitoring of toluene and xylene is carried out by measuring the urinary metabolites hippuric acid (HA) and methylhippuric acid (MHA), respectively. The objective of this study was to assess the exposure to toluene and xylene and to identify related signs and symptoms in gasoline station workers. A cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted with workers occupationally exposed to fuels. These gasoline station workers were divided into two groups: 94 workers exposed mainly by inhalation (convenience store workers (CSWs)) and 181 workers exposed by inhalation and dermal route (filling station attendants (FSAs)). A comparison group was formed by 119 workers not occupationally exposed to fuels (office workers (OWs)). Workers exposed to fuels had higher average levels of these exposure biomarkers (HA and MHA), which were also higher in convenience store workers than in filling station attendants. In addition, individuals exposed to the solvents present in gasoline had altered mood/depression, cramps, dizziness, drowsiness, headaches, irritability/nervousness, weakness, weight loss, and other symptoms more frequently and had higher urinary levels of HA and MHA compared to the comparison group. Gasoline station workers showed high levels of HA and MHA, reflecting high occupational exposure to the solvents toluene and xylene present in gasoline, demonstrating that changes in the current legislation and in the work environment are necessary to ensure better health protection for these workers.

Research Article

Associated Factors for Dropout of First Vs Third Doses of Diphtheria Tetanus Pertussis (DPT) Vaccination in Nepal

Background. Immunization acts as a key intervention to reduce under-five mortality and morbidity. Despite global progress on vaccination, difficulties in the utilization of this service in developing countries have been observed. According to Nepal Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) 2016, only 78% of children received a complete dose of vaccine among which the first-dose receiver of DPT is 98%, whereas only 83% received a third dose. This study aims to explore the influencing factors of DPT vaccination dropout in Nepal. Methods. The explorative study was done through secondary data analysis of NDHS 2016. The KR file was used for the analysis of information for 2883 children. Factors influencing dropout of DPT vaccination were explored against the independent variables such as external environment, predisposing factors, and enabling resources. All the analyses were weighted before the analysis. The descriptive, bivariate, and multivariate analyses were performed. The variables showing collinearity have been removed in the final model. Results. A higher dropout was reported in Terai (18.9%) and province 2 (22.0%), among uneducated mothers (18.1%) and uneducated fathers (19.4%), less than once a week internet users (22.2%), the nonradio listener (17.4%), who had <4 ANC visits (22.7%), home delivery (19.2%), no advised SBA (19.1%), long distance to health facility (17.9%), no iron supplementation in pregnancy (24.3%), and PNC by TBA/others (21.1%). All these tested relationships were found statistically significant ( value <0.05). The aOR for dropout was found to be 7.94 (4.07–15.51) for mothers with less than 4 or no ANC visit, long distance to health facility 4.68 (1.98–10.67), province 2 3.53 (1.13–11.03), and mother without formal employment 2.33 (1.52–3.55). Conclusion. Factors related to health services, distance, provinces, and socioeconomic status of the family were influencers for vaccine dropout. Targeted intervention towards disadvantaged regions, counseling the mother during ANC, improving the education status of parents, access to the health facility, and use of mass media for advocacy are hereby recommended.

Advances in Preventive Medicine
 Journal metrics
Acceptance rate15%
Submission to final decision42 days
Acceptance to publication56 days
CiteScore-
Journal Citation Indicator-
Impact Factor-
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Article of the Year Award: Outstanding research contributions of 2020, as selected by our Chief Editors. Read the winning articles.