Table 2: Elements of the continuum of care for people who use drugs, abuse, or are drug dependent.

(1) Prevention of drug initiation
 Individual targeted interventions through the lifespan
 Family-targeted interventions
 Community interventions

(2) Identification of substane use conditions
 Screening for drug use
 Case finding
 Assessment and diagnosis

(3) Initiation and engagement in drug treatment
 Brief intervention
 Promoting engagement, case management/care navigators
 Detoxification/withdrawal management
 Assessment of social, comorbid medical conditions, and cooccurring disorders

(4) Long-term treatment of substance use illness
 Treatment of comorbid medical conditions and cooccurring disorders
 Promotion of treatment engagement and social stability through legal, social, educational, financial support

(5) Primary care and posttreatment management of patient
 Medical home
 Relapse prevention