Advances in Preventive Medicine / 2012 / Article / Tab 2

Review Article

Advanced Development of the rF1V and rBV A/B Vaccines: Progress and Challenges

Table 2

Symptoms following aerosol exposure to BoNT/A1 or BoNT/B1.

SymptomsHuman1NHP
(rhesus macaque)
Guinea pig
(Hartley)
Mouse
(CD-1)
NHP
(rhesus macaque)
Guinea pig
(Hartley)
Mouse
(CD-1)
Inhalational BoNT/A1Inhalational BoNT/B1

Onset of symptoms: dose dependentYesYesYesYesYesYesYes
LethargyYes1YesYesNRYesYesNR
Flaccid paralysisYesNRYesYesNRNRYes
Ptosis (drooping eyelids)YesYesYesYesYesYesNo
Dysphagia (difficulty swallowing)Yes1YesNRNRYesNRNR
Symmetric, descending paralysisYesYesNRYesYesNRNR
Labored respirationsNR2YesYesYesYesYesYes
AtaxiaYes1YesNRNRYesNRNR
Muscle weaknessYes1YesYesYesYesYesYes
Lateral recumbencyNRYesNRNRYesNRNR
Nasal dischargeNoYesNo?NRYesYesNo
ConstipationYesYesNRNRNRNRNR
ParesisYesYesYesYesYesYesNR
CoughingNoYesNRNRYesNoNR
PiloerectionNRNRYesYesNRYesYes
LethalityYesYesYesYesYesYesYes
Time to death: dose dependentNRYesYesYesNRNRNR

1Specific observations in humans following inhalational exposure.
2NR, not reported.

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